See All Global Surveying Events

Calendar of Events in Surveying History

-4713 to 1967

-4713

Julian datum. Counting days commenced. 01.01.1960 had 


    JD 2 436 935.00  astro. days


-4200

Babylonian year of 365 days


-4000

Babylonian land title and law suits on clay tablets


-3800

Babylonians used analog devices for surveying and map making


-3500

Glass in Egypt


-3000

Northern cubit a standard of length. Mesopotamia, Egypt, N Africa, India, China


-3000

Egyptian river gauge called the Palermo stone. 


-3000

Egyptian world a rectangular box, Egypt in centre, sky was a flat or domed ceiling supported by columns or high mountains.


-2900

Glass in Mesopotamia. A lens from Nineveh in Br. Museum


-2780

Pyramids erected first at Gizeh by Cheops et al. Base perimeter = ½ geog. mile


-2600

Egyptian standard of length on grey basalt column 53 cm long.


-2500

Egyptian foot = ½ northern cubit = 13.2 inch. Egypt and Indus valley.


-2290

Gudea, High priest shown on tablet holding a plane table on his knees.



     Statue of Gidea in Louvre, shows Sumerian cubit = 30 fingers =      

     19.6 inch



     This standard used to set out Tower of Babel (Ziggurat of Ur).


??

Egyptian papyrus map of Nubian goldmines near Koptos.


-2000

Crude lenses in Crete and coast of Asia Minor, made of rock crystal.


-2000

Nine Chinese bronze vases depicted nine provinces + mountains, rivers etc


-2000

Babylonians used astronomical phenomena for astrological purposes.


-2000

Chaldeans divided day and night into 12 hours each.



    Predicted eclipses, equator divided to 360º, named 12 signs of    

    zodiac.


-2000

Mathematics for surveyors began with the triangle.


-2000

Chinese algebra began



    Greeks solved problems by geometrical means.



    Babylonians advanced into cubic and biquadratic equations.


-2000

Egyptian unequal hour shadow clock.


-1850

Egyptian papyrus on geometrical problems.


-1850

Babylonian clay tablet on survey problems. Contained threats to those



    who might remove boundary stones. 


-1800

Stonehenge erected.


-1800

Pythagorean theorem


-1700

Egypt- much practical geometry used in land surveying .


-1700

Babylonia, Egypt. Computing area and volumes requiring fractions and pi.


-1550?

Egypt, Rhind papyrus describing mensuration, fractions, areas.


-1550

Egyptian Royal Cubit of Amenhotep I. Now in Louvre.


-1500

to -200. Chinese surveyors had plumbob, gnomon, water level, counting rods, hand computer, magnetic c ompass, square, groma.


-1450

to -550. Many relics show Babylonian boundary surveys.


-15th C

Chinese daycount not dependent on sun or moon. Sexagesimal cycles.


-15th C

Clepsydra in Babylonia and Egypt.


-1400

Text of the time of kurigalzu on ancient boundary stone.


-1400

Egyptian tomb with pictures of sounding Nile with lead line.


-1361

First record of lunar eclipse in China.


-1350

Or -1220. Sacred cubit of Moses = 25 in. = Northern cubit.


-14th C

28 lunar mansions = moon stations of zodiac in Chinese literature.


-13th C

Lunation of 29.53 days in China


-1250

Ramses II (-1292t o -1225) instructed to erect tomb for a surveying engineer.


-1217

First record of solar eclipse in China.


-12th C

Egypt. Simple and complex geometrical figures on urns etc


-1125

Official topographic description of China by Wen-Wang.


-1000

Or -600. Chinese jade work associated with circumpolar constellation templets. 



    Forerunners of the European nocturnal of +1150.


-969

Israel. Solomon built temple using Northern cubit (= 0.64 m)


-900

To -500. Homeric Epics mention constellations Orion, Pleiades, Great Bear.


-800

India. Sulvasutras- had chapter on setting out by ropes and rt. angled triangles.


-780

China. Earthquakes recorded.


-750

Hesiodos of Ascra recorded some astronomy.


-721

Moon eclipse recorded by Babylonians


-715

Hezekiah, 12th King of Judah, had water conduit of 1098 ft built in Jerusalem. Lateral breakthrough 20 ft.


-700

Assyrian cubit on baked clay cylinder used to set out Khorsabad.


-672

Chinese bronze mirrors.


-654

Winter solstice in China- observed sun shadow with gnomon on tower.


-600

Phoenicians used Little Bear for navigation.


-600

Periandros of Greece contemplated canal through Isthmus of Corinth


-6th C

Theodorus of Samos had right-angle instruments


-6th C

China had decimal foot rules in bronze. Ten Chinese inches into tens


-6th C

Yang-Chheng gnomon 6 ft high, extant 1966. Shadow 1.5 ft at summer solstice


-6th C

Pythagoras and his disciples declared earth as a sphere.



Thales calculated heights of mountains from shadow length.



Thales observed power of the magnet



Glass made locally in China



Pythagoras' theory on rays running from eye to object.


-592

Ezekiel described what he saw from top of a mountain - ie cadastral "map"


-575

Sundials delivered from Babylonians or Chaldeans to Greeks.


-538

Josua spent most of his life on cadastral surveys. Knotted cords


-532

Philolaos discussed rotation of planets including sun around "fire".


-500

Babylonians expressed large numbers in multiples of 60.



Chinese large numbers in multiples of 10.



Romans expressed larger numbers in multiples of 12 or 16.



Democritus - formula for volume of pyramid.



- to + 1300.  Development of cosmological theories.



Aristagoras - maps on bronze and iron tablets



Babylonian world map on clay tablet.


-5th C

Antiphon, calculus to measure magnitudes of exhaustion.



Herodotus attributed beginning of geometry to annual overflow of R Nile.



    He described aquaduct / tunnel on Samos.


-480

Greece - 6 mile canal through Mt Athos peninsula. 


-475

Parmenides "moon shines with reflected light".


-450

Heracleides - geocentric system of planets. Some round sun, others about earth.



    Earth rotated about its own axis.


-408

Eudoxus explained maths of celestial motions. 27 spheres.


-400

First armillary rings in China. 1464 stars in Chinese catalogue.


-400

China. Mohists proposed standardisation of length measure.


-400

Indian method of meridian determination in Surya Siddhanta.



Romans attempted orientation of temples, tombs, cities etc.


-4th C

Chou Pei Suan Ching publication on maths and astronomy.



Water level to get horz. surface for sun shadow. Meridian from sun rise and set.


-4th C

Studies on vision. Refraction. Reflection. refractive index etc


-4th C

Heaven likened to Hen's egg, earth to yolk. Circ. 365¼º



Shih Shen's and other star catalogues including Hipparchos.



China. Heaven has 9 layers. Distance to sky 20000 li = 6000 km 



Sun illuminates 167000 li diameter (= 50000 km)



Theophrastus and Eudemos wrote histories on cosmography and early astro.



Dikaearchos (-350--290) idea of reference line to orient maps. Ran W - E


-384

Aristotle increased Eudoxus spheres to 55. Concluded earth a sphere.


-350

Menaechmos, rectangular coord axes. Maybe founder of analytical geometry.


-330

Theoretical geometry applied to physical science by Mohist Canon Mo Ching.



Mention of carpenter's  square.


-313

onwards. Romans built Aqua Appia.  See quote Werner Calendar p 10


-312

Aristarchos postulated heliocentric system of planets. Defined ecliptic.



Rotation of earth about own axis. Angle between sun and half moon = 87º



really 89º 51'.  Distance sun-earth 19 x dist. moon-earth. Should be 389 times


-300

Euclid's 15 vol. on mathematics, especially geometry.


-300

Greeks. Complex analogs of solar system


-300

Start of 500 year domination of Univ. of Alexandria in scientific life.


-300

Indian world map allowed China 1/81 of world surface.


-3rd C

Apollonius used coordinate axes.


-3rd C

Eratosthenes size of earth Alexandria - Syene. 


-3rd C

China. Minute appreciation of topographic features. 


-3rd C

Ctesibius refined clepsydra with float.


-3rd C

to + 6th C. Chinese cosmology- heavens a spherical dome, earth an upturned



bowl. Distance between domes 80000 li


-290

to -212. Archimedes staff with flat disc held to cover sun.


-290

Archimedes solved problems of calculus, analytical and differential geometry


-284

Eratosthenes suggested coordinate grid over a spherical earth.



Fundamental parallel through Rhodes and meridian thro' Syene, Alexandria etc



Lu Pu-Wei assumed earth as flat disc.


-270

Eudoxus' work made known through Phenomena and Prognostica.


-270

Berossos. Inverted hemisphere known as a scaphe.


-260

Aristarchos. Tangent ratio in right angles. 


-250

Time by hour glass 


-250

Chinese astronomers and mathematicians defined pi 3.14159


-250

Timosthenes of Rhodes. Sea charts with distances between harbours


-240

Halley's comet of +1682 first recorded in China.


-240

China. Hodometer -drum carriage to count miles.


-227

First record of Chinese silk map carried in a wooden box to hide a dagger.


-210

Chinese relief model of R. Yangtze.


-207

Emperor Chhin Shih Huang-Ti collected Empire maps.


-200

Registration of boundaries of areas travelled by Chinese emperors. 


-200

China. 2 ten ft gnomon 1000 li apart N-S. Shadow decreased 1 inch per 1000 li


-200

Four cardinal points fixed. Data determined for a calendar.


-200

Appollonius introduced epicycles.


-2nd C

Chinese used negative numbers


-190

to -125. Hipparchos eccentricty of earth orbit 1/24 RE (really 1/60 RE).



Year as 365d 5h 55m (really 49m). Invented? astrolabe. 


-177

Persia. Seleucid Greeks constructed tunnels marked by line of well shafts.


c -150

Heron's dioptra for areas, inaccessible heights etc



He described standardisation of measuring ropes.  Water level and staff.


-150

Crates. Suggested representing earth as globe divided to 4 equal continents.


-140

Hipparchus used terms mekos and platos - longitude and latitude.


-140

Seleucos studied tides in Persian Gulf.


-140

Hipparchus. Graphical solution of spherical triangles. 


-130

Hipparchos introduced term climata for area between parallels.


-120

Chinese gnomon up to 40 ft high.


-120

China. Chuang-Hsiung-Phi built Dragon Head canal with shafts and tunnels.



Used metal sighting tube for distance. Water level. Compass. Plumb line.

-104

Sundials in China with plate inclined in equatorial plane, gnomon pointing at the pole. Some dials with centesimal graduation.


-1st C

Posidonius distancs sun-earth 13000 RE (actually  23400)


-1st C

Caesar planned complete survey of empire. Responsible for Roman roads and aquaducts in Italy, France, Germany etc.


-1st C

Posidonius gave meridian quadrant as 11000 km


-100

Egypt. Edfu temple has erroneous inscription on area of quadrilateral.


-90

Historical record of Chinese astronomy written by Ssuma Chhien.


-60

Nero's engineers began Corinth canal. Abandoned for fear of diff in levels


-52

Chinese permanently fixed equatorial ring on armillary.


-50

Large clepsydra in Tower of Winds, Athens


-46

Calendar troubles. Last year before commencement of Julian calendar 



lasted 445 days.  Sosigenes prepared new work.


-15

Vitruvius reported on automatic timepiece- Horologium anaphoricum- had  astrolabe disc with a net of projected parallels and meridians. Water driven.


+4

Boundary line in Wurttemberg 80 km long.Resurveyed 1911. Out of 



alignment by 2 m in 29 km.


+5

China. Chia Liang Hu by Liu Hsin, a model to define standard measures. 


pre +7

Balbus constructed right angle with aid of a semi-circle.


18

Roman wall map


32

Relief maps modelled in rice.


60

Apostle Paul report on sounding lines


69

Diviner's board with compass indications, symbolic rep. of heaven and earth.


80

Wang Chhung discussed dependence of sea tides on moon.


83

China. First self-registering direction finder.


84

China. Ecliptic armillary ring.


89

Chia Khuei, precise definition of ecliptic.


1st C

Fort Caburn, Sussex set out with Sumerian ft of 20 shusi as standard.


1st C

Cinerarium in Vatican Gardens portrayed in relief the Roman ft measure.


1st C

Difference between Greek and Chinese mathematics


1st C

Geocentric system of planets.


100

Chang Heng scientific cartography in China used rectangular grid.


100

Menelaos wrote Spherics containing the sine function.


100

China. South pointing carriage.


100

Heron's De Speculis on mirrors and angle of reflection.


105

Mechanical process of paper making from plant fibres.


107

South pointers frequently mentioned - lodestone; wet and dry models


120

Ptolemy insisted maps to be based on astro. obs. Longitude in terms of time coords. and not guesses. Lats by transits of circumpolar stars.


120

Chinese Pan Ku and Pan Chao used coordinate system


125

Horizon and meridian rings added to Chinese armilleries. 


130

Chinese star catalogue of 2500 stars + 11250 smaaler ones counted.


150

Ptolemaic chord tables. First mention of abacus by Hsu Yo.


164

Gnomon shadow template of jade


178

China. Calendar reform. Ideas on obliquity similar to Eratosthenes.


190

Shu Shu Chi-I mention of calendrical astronomy.


2nd C

Anti-Kythera machine. Anaphoric clocks in Hellene.


200

China. Hydrographic record. Marine navigation.


200

China. Cosmology of infinite empty space.


230

Chao Ta, dial and pointer system for direction finding.


250

Indirect height measurement.


263

Chinese text on measuring heights and distances with poles bearing crossbars.


265?

Precession of equinoxes by Yu Hsi (or 320?)


267

China. Levelling. Measuring curves and straights to reduce for slope.


275

Diophantus called negative numbers absurd.


3rd C

Chinese calculus.    Roman abacus.    Celestial globe.


3rd C

Ref. to crosswire grid. Length standards for small distances based on 



diameter of silk thread = 1 hu.


330

Pytheus travelled Europe et al reporting on tides and other topics.


4th C

Magnetic needles in China


4th C

First Chinese star map.


400

Indians produced modern trigonometry as Paulisa Siddhanta.


445

Ho Chheng-Thien simultaneous obs. at Hanoi and Hue gave decrease in shadow with latitude of 3.56 in per 1000 li.


450

Chinese wood relief 10 ft square.


475

Indeterminate analysis in China.


480

Pi to 3.1415929203 by Tsu Chhung-Chih.  Finite differences in astronomy.


5th C

Marcellus and Pliny the Elder reported on repellant force of lodestone.


500

Li Tau-Nguan commented on hydrography in China in 40 volumes.


500

Chang Chiu-Chien noted survey problems using right angled triangles.


505

Varaha-Mihira used sines and c osines.


510

Aryabhata gave name sinus to that function. Tables x 1 degree


540

Cassiodoros reported on science of land surveying. 


548

Multiplication tables by Li Nien.


570

Chinese computations by abacus. 


6th C

Arabs created terms zenith, nadir, azimuth.


6th C

Arabs determined obliquity of the ecliptic.


600

Seismograph by Lin.


604

Liu Chhuo selected baselines in flat country along meridian through



Honan and Hopei to determine time by clepsydra and to set gnomons.


632

Astro. obs. tower in Korea about 30 ft high. Use a pin hole to determine 



shadow length to 3 dec. places of a foot.


640

Arabs observed stars with 20 ft quadrant and 56 ft stone sextant at Abul Welfa.



Some obs. in connection with geodetic baselines.


646

China. Schools of surveying established. 



Japanese emperor pordered production of cadastral maps.


7th C

Codex Arcerianus (Irish) described survey practice and legal aspects.


7th C

European churches oriented N.


7th C

China. Magnetic declination discovered.


7th C

Japanese used south indicator.


7th C

Balance arm clepsydra at Antioch. 


713

Mechanical clockwork in China.


713

to 800.  Terrestrial civil unit fixed as 1/351 Chinese degree. 


716

Original Arabian foot shown on column. The Nilometer. 


718

Indian sine tables traslated into Chinese


721

to 725. Eleven Chinese obs. points on line through Hue (not on same meridian) 



Hue 17.9ºN Weichow 40ºN.  Diff. shadow lengths 4 in/ 1000 li. 


723

Clockwork escapement invented in China.


725

I-Hsing. Armillary spheres with ecliptically mounted sighting tubes.


777

Al-Fazari under Al-Masur made first Arabic astrolabe.



Arabian plumb bob recorded at that time.


8th C

Arabs used carpenter's s quare (Kunija) larger than a groma.


8th C

Significance of metric system recognised in China.



Attempts to define terrestrial units in terms of astro. or geodetic constants.


800

Windroses developed by Vikings.


800

Arabian manuscript on astrolabes.


820

Al-Kwarizmi developed Hindu number system and algebra.



Text on algebra in which the word was invented. 


827

Arabs measured baselines near Baghdad. 


840

Camera obscura in China.


850

Arabs mechanised papermaking.


850

Al-Battani added the shadow square to the astrolabe.


871

Alfred the Great determined inch as 3 grains of barley, dry, round.


9th C

Arabs rejected earth rotation about own axis.


900

Ibn Jabir ibn Sinan al Baltani concept of tan and cotan. 


950

Gerbert conveyed Muslim surveying knowledge to the West. 


970

Abul-Wafa al-Buzjani concept of secant and cosecant.


975

King Edgar ordained 3 ft = 1 yard.


992

Decimal system for weight became official in China.


10th C

Sighting tube reported in a codex of St Gallen monastery.


1000

Hamid Ibn al Khidr al-Khujandi sextant radius 57 ft.


1080

Chinese maps, reasonably accurate, at 1:31 680


1086

Shen Kua, enguineer and  surveyor, determined lengths of arcs and 



produced tables on chords and arcs.  Arc = chord + S.S/R (S= mid ordinate. He also set out canals, slopes, levelling dams etc by water level.


1090

Su Sung's astronomical clock tower 35 ft high. Powerdriven globe and 



armillary sphere. Latter had a sighting tube.


11th C

Arabs, decimal fractions from Indians, transmission to Jewish and 



Latin scholars in 12th C.


11th C

Length of year known to Mayas Incas and Indians as 365.2420


1103

Chinese sighting tube for altitude.


1114

Indian horizontal staff described by Bhaskara. Used by Muslims to measure depth of wells.


1120

Henry I, statute on standard yard. Hexagonal brass yard. 


1137

Two Chinese maps carved in stone had grid to scale of 100 li. 


1150

Jabir ibn Aflah probable inventor of Torquetum.



Recording of star altitudes by finger width of outstretched arm.


1155

First printed Chinese map


1159

Arab cylindrical sundial


1180

Alexander Neckam described magnetic needle in De naturis rerum.


1198

Chinese Astronomer Royal severely punished for wrongly predicting solar eclipse by ½ day.


12th C

China. Timekeeping by metal incense clock, burning point of powder



winding through labyrinth of characters.


12th C

Determination of diameter and circumference of a circular walled city from afar.


1200

Venetian glass makers developed art of lens making.


1205

Seven day week introduced in China.


1220

Fibonacci analytical geometry in Europe.


1229

Translation of Arab writings on astronomy.


1232

Floating compass needle used in Persia.


1247

Chinese planisphere engraved in stone.


1250

Alfonsine tables of planets


1258

Nasir al-Din al-Tusi first Director of Observatory at Maragha.



Al-Tusi 12 ft wooden mural quadrant with sights, copper limb to degrees.


1269

Peregrinus described azimuthal dial with alidade and compass.


1274

Zero number in Chinese computations.


1276

Chinese gnomon 40 ft high in brick tower at Yang-chheng, 120 ft shadow scale and waterchannel for level control.


1276

Torquetum by Kuo-Shou-Ching in Peking.


1279

Kuo Shou-Ching's observatory at Peking.


1285

Spina and Armati invented spectacles.


13th C

Bacon studied properties of mirrors and plano convex lenses.


13th C

Al-Urdi al-Dimashqi improved ancient Indian circles method for Azimuth fixes.


13th C

al-Marrekushi's 134 geog coords froim astrofixes.


13th C

Bowl compass in Chinese waters for navigation.


13th C

Seismograph at Maraghah Observatory


13th C

to 17th C England. Open field system. Unit length, reach of a barge pole.


13th C

Jacob staff by Levi ben Gershon.


13th C

Decimal point by Yang Hui.


1300

Chu Ssu-Pen atlas of China.


1305

Edward I, unit of length 1 inch of 3 grains of barley.


1306

Grid map of Palestine. by Sanuto.


1311

Portolan charts with rectangular grids by Pietro.


1335

Gough map of England with 3 different miles- 2230 yard in England; 2250 yard in Wales;' 2800 yard in Cheshire.


1350

Gough's Itinerary map of Gt Britain.



Relief map of Gibraltar by Ibn Battutah


1370

Oresme used terms longitudo, latitudo.


14th C

Chinese road alignments by compass.


14th C

First European mechanical astronomical clocks.


1416

Henry the Navigator founded School of Navigation in Sagres.


1421

Polish topographical map.


1437

Ulug Beg Star Almanac. Had quadrant 180 ft high for star obs.


1440

Gutenberg invented letterpress. Maps mainly cut in wood.


1462

Sea quadrant by de Cintra.


1471

Diaz rounded Cape of Good Hope.


1472

Ivan the Terrible established unique library under the Kremlin.


1473

Zacuto published perpetual almanac in Hebrew.


1477

Intaglio printing by Durer.


1492

Behaim's Nurnberg globe with prime meridian 2º W of Canary Is.


1493

Pope Alexander VI divided map of world in two by meridian in mid Atlantic.


1493

Columbus discovered discrepancy between Flemish and Italian compasses.


1496

Bronze rod yard standard in Britain.


1497

Vasco da Gama sailed to India.


15th C

Purbach geometric square . Tables of sines and tangents.


15th C

de Cusa supported heliocentric theory and diurnal rotation of earth.


15th C

L da Vinci - Visible masses on the earth's surface are in equilibrium.


1500

Organum viatorum. Pocket size combination of compass + sundial


1507

Copernicus wrote De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. 


1508

Portable clock in Europe


1512

Waldseemuller's polimetrum for bearings and altitudes.


1512

Evidence of nautical cartography in Java


1513

Piri Rei of Turkey, sea chart of Atlantic with American Coast.


1523

Fitzherbert. First book on surveying;  Boke of Surveyinge.


1524

Tartaglia box compass with altitude on circular graduated board.


1525

French topographical maps by Fine and Coline


1525

Russian topographic maps made by invited foreigners.


1525

Guillen combined gnomon and compass for variations in magnetic declination.


1525

Fernel measured distance Paris-Amiens by carriage wheel.


1528

Topographic maps in Russia and Poland by Wapowski.


1530

Term chronometer suggested by Frisius.


1530

Agricola wrote De re metallica on mine surveying


1530

Arsenius added a compass to an astrolabe.


1533

Frisius wrote on triangulation. 


1534

Frisius portable equatorial armillary sphere.


1537

de Benese wrote The Boke of Measuringe Lande. 



Distance by wooden rod of 1 perch = 5½ yards long.


1537

Nunez designed the nonius for reading quadrants.


1540

Quality woodcut map of Bavaria by Apian.


1541

Box compass by Neudorfer


1542

Differential quadrant by Rotz for navigation. Simul: det: lat and Az.


1542

Hartmann discovered inclination of magnetic needle.


1545

Marine Jacob's staff by de Medina


1546

Tartaglia reported on survey methods in Italy.


1546

Brahe designed 19 ft quadrant for his Danish observatory.


1546

Mercator recognised existence of magnetic poles.


1547

Ryff improvement of theodolite


1550

De Roja's book on astrolabium published.


1551

Foulon with plane table plus holometre.


1551

Munster designed trigonus- three straight rods in triangle vide triquetum


1554

Mohit used Jacob staff with various sliding plates for star altitudes.


1556

King Akbar decreed 25 Indus inch = 1 gaz (= the Ilahi gaz or Akbar yard)


1556

Digges Tectonicon


1557

Modern = sign by Recorde


1559

Cunningham described triangulation


1564

Bartoli different design of polimetrum


1569

Mercator true bearing chart for navigators.


1569

Rheticus taught proper survey control for mapping.


1570

World map by Ortelius


1571

Theodolitus by Digges. Also the instrument topographicall


1571

Torquetum by Regiomontanus


1571

Kepler succeeded Brahe in Prague.


1574

Gutmann wrote Felsmessen,gewiss.richtig und kurz gestellt. (On proper 



survey methods).


1574

Reinhold similar book to Gutmann. Preferred a wire to hemp cord for distance.


1579

Brahe connected Denmark and Sweden via Oresund.


1579

Saxton's English county maps with triangulation control


1581

Galilei observed swinging chandelier


1583

Ricci world map with flattened sphere projection.


1585

Decimal arithmetic introduced by Stevin.


1587

Sea charts by Mercator son Rumold.


1588

Q Elizabeth I St. yard of 36 inch = 3 ft.......1760 yds to mile


1590

First Italian telescope by Porta.


1593

Chinese reel of measuring tape similar to modern


1594

Hulsius elaborate quadrant with compass  sundial


1594

Praetorius ball and socket head for plane table tripod.


1594

Errard de Bar-le-Duc telemetre


1594

Werner's Jakob staff 7 ft long with 2000 divisions for angle measure


1595

Davis back staff for use at sea.


1597

French astrolabe - graphometre by Danfrie.


1598

de Subermille designed Henry metre- a combination of rods.


1598

Pfintzing surveyors carriage with dial recording hodometer


16th C

Hommel (1518-1562) Leipzig, promoted surveying.


16th C

Seven European astro instruments with 360º divs. reached China via Persia.


16th C

Leonard and Thomas Digges experimented with telescope making.


1600

Decimal division. 1 chain = 100 links



Germany. Miner's Lachter-Kette or brass chain was 8-12 m long.


1600

X sign introduced by Viete


1600

Pitiscus published his Trigonometriae


1600

Clavius wrote Operum Mathematicorum.


1605

Topographic map of Japan.


1606

Snellius described compass declination of 11º 15'


1607

First 6 of the 15 books of Euclid translated into Chinese by Ricci.


1607

Logarithms by Burgi.


1608

Dutch trunks (telescopes) by Lippershey.


1609

First two of Kepler's Laws published.


1610

Kepler's astronomical telescope for surveyors. Huygens refined lens making.


1610

Galilei observed Jupiter with 30X telescope.  His sector for computations.


1610

French toise marked by iron rod in foot of stairs of Le Chatelet.


1612

Word telescope used by Lagalla but ascribed to Demisiani


1612

Harriot went as surveyor to Virginia.


1612

Scheiner's helioscope.


1612

Dou's Holland circle made in Amsterdam. It had a cross swivel joint tripod.


1612

Word telescope used by Lagalla.


1614

Napier's addit. logs and natural functions.


1615

Snellius introduced base extension and resection into triangulation. 



Used large 4 or 5 ft diam copper quadrant with transversal to 1'. 


1615

Kepler's Doliometria described vol. calculations by prismoidal rule.


1615

Dias in China mentioned telescope in his Explanation of the Celestial Sphere.


1616

Rathborne's The Surveyor. Described theodelite, playne table, circumferentor.


1617

Napier's bones.


1618

First telescope arrived in China.


1619

Third law of Kepler published.


1620

Introduction of slide rule


1621

Snellius' sine law of refraction


1622

Oughtred invented straight log. slide rule.


1624

Briggs logs to base 10


1624

Log slide rule by Gunter


1624

Gunter's Description and Use of the Sector... published.


1626

Chinese book on telescopes.


1627

Wingate's straight edge slide rule. Two scales.


1630

Bleau alleged to have measured base between Maas and Texel.


1630

Algebraic geometry by Gethaldi.


1631

Vernier designed.


1632

Oughtred described a circular slide rule.


1633

Norwood's measure London to York by chain. What else? 


1636

Mersenne's reflecting telescope.


1637

Descartes work on lenses. 


1637

Descartes cartesian analytical geometry and integral exponents.


1638

Telescopes fitted with cross hairs of silk by Gascoigne.


1639

Gascoigne's movable hair in telescope.  Hence gradienter method.


1640

Gascoigne's knife edge eyepiece micrometer.


1640

Adding machine suggested by Ciermans. (Scierman)


1640

Theory of numbers and analytical geometry by Fermat.


1640

Leibniz coined terms abscissa and ordinata.


1642

Pascal's adding machine.


1642

Torricelli had idea of mercury barometer


1643

Viviani experimented on making a vacuum.


1644

Mersenne observed free fall acc due to gravity by pendulum


1645

Riccioli & Grimaldi arc measure Mt Serra-Paderno-Modena. Unreliable.


1647

Hevelius' 150 ft long telescope. Pub. Selenographia and Machinae coelestis


1648

Pascal's Lunar tables.


1648

Pascal taught use of barometer for height difference with Torricelli barometer


1650

Divini and Campani made long focus object glasses.


1650

De La Hire suggested engraving cross hairs by diamond.


1650

Gilbert considered earth as a large magnet.


1650

First use of logs in China.


1650

Partridge modern slide rule with movable centrepiece.


1653

Improvement of level by Strumienski of Cracow


1653

Claramontius improved level.


1653

Leybourn published his The Compleat Surveyor. Went to 5 Edns by 1722


1654

Barometric measures demonstrated to the Regensburg Reichstag.


1654

Jakob Bernouilli started his work on catenary, loxodrome, spirals etc


1657

Huygens grandfather clock.


1658

Atwell published his The Faithful Surveyor. 


1658

Hooke's spiral spring  for pocket watches.


1659

Huygens and Hooke micrometer designs. Intro of virgula = tapered metal bar and hair micrometer


1660

Italian level with floating gunsights by Schoff


1660

Division sign introduced


1660

Tilas of Sweden- mining compass


1660

Picard - semi-automatic levels. One with telescope and water level container other with plumb bob forcing telescope into horizontal position.


1660

Chinese obtained slide rule from Europe.


1660

Mouton suggested an unalterable universal measure for the metre.


1661

Thevonet invented spirit bubble.


1662

Van Breen (Holland) improved nautical staff with coloured observer's glass


1662

Reticule micrometer with several silver wires by Malvasia.


1663

Gregory - two mirror combination for reflecting telescope proposed


1665

Newton postulated earth as oblate spheroid.


1666

Newton clarified distinction between spherical and chromatic aberration.


1666

Foundation of Academie des Sciences, Paris.


1666

Auzout filar micrometer.


1667

Praetorius wrote on diving rods in Gazophylaci gaudium.


1667

to 1670. Picard, Auzout and Romer established precision astronomy.


1667

Godunov's first map of Siberia


1668

Hooke's shortened telescope and lens grinding machine.


1668

Newton's reflecting telescope.


1669

Riccioli and Picard observed free fall acc due to gravity by pendulum


1669

Chains in use- Rathborne 1 perch = 100 links; Gunter 4 perches or poles = 100 links


1669

Verbiest reequippoed Peking astronomical observatory.


1669

to 70. Picard determined arc from Amiens to Malvoisin



His quadrant used on arc was 10 ft radius with telescopic sights and cross hairs


1670

and on. Newton and law of gravitation. 


1670

Differential calculus by Leibniz, Briggs, Napier and Newton


1670

to 90. Observatories built in Paris, Greenwich and Berlin.


1670

Hooke suggested clockwork driven telescope.


1670

Mouton proposed a linear scale based on a geodetic minute.


1671

Picard  suggested a Universal Foot as function of sec pendulum


1672

Cassegrain suggested reflecting telescope


1672

to 1695. Leibniz Staffelwalzenmachine for multiplication and tens transmission


1672

Richer in Cayenne observed parallax to Mars



Noticed that his pendulum had to be shortened at Cayenne to keep time.


1672

G D Cassini I determined distance earth-sun.


1673

Hooke and Hevelius compared merits of gunsights with telescope pointing.


1673

Loevenhoek showed great skill in lens grinding.


1674

Montanari used stadia method for distance.


1677

Foster in Boston USA First American map in woodcut.


1677

Flamsteed equatorial sextant. Wrote Historia Coelestis. 


1682

Pendulum observations by Halley, Varin, Deshayes, de Glos and Goree.


1683

Seki Kowa wrote on determinants.


1683

Cassini I extended Picard's arc north to Dunkirk


1683

Cassini II wrote on barometric levelling.


1684

Romer's transit instrument at Copenhagen.


1686

Halley deduced crude relation for pressure v height


1686

to 1743 Maharajah Jai Sing set up over 40 astro. instruments in various cities.


1687

Hooke suggested a Pole finding telescope with concentric circles.


1687

Newton wrote Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica.


1688

Chinese scholar gave details of ancient Chinese standards of length.


1693

Leibniz wrote on determinants


1697

Contour lines introduced by Ancelin, Rotterdam


17 C

Leybourn published method of closing traverses.


17 C

Beginning of modern Geodesy


17 C

Jesuits arrived in China.They had a cosmos of the closed Ptolemaic-Aristotelian geocentric universe of solid concentric crystalline spheres. This opposed the doctrine of the floating of heavenly bodies of Hsuan-Yeh.


17 C

Roman Catholic & Protestant clergy supplied "all round" geodesists to Europe.



eg Cusa, Copernicus, Picard, Boscovich, Bohnenburger.


1700

La Hire began extension of Picard arc to the south. 



It reached Colliure by 1716 or 18.  gave prolate figure !! See entry p 46


1700

Halley's charts of magnetic declination across continents and oceans.


1700

Newton designed first octant.  He wrote on ancient metrology.


1702

Leibniz had idea of using elastic deformation of metal for pressure measure.


1702

Antoine Thomas arc measure in China.  See entry p 46


1702

Mallet described spirit levels.


1704

Romer's meridian circle.


1704

Le Blon experimented on colour effects in printing.


1705

Sherwin 7 figure log tables.


1707

to 1717.  Complete resurvey of China by Jesuits. 


1707

Euler started teaching in Basel, Petersburg and then Berlin.


1708

to 12.  Hooke and Flamsteed used van Breen's ideas on the quadrant.


1709

Bion described octagonal surveyor's cross for 45º and 90º horz. angles.


1710

Peter the Great (Russia) ordered linear scale (fuss) supposedly equivalent 



to ancient Chinese foot, to be made equal to English foot.


1713

Bernouill binomial distribution.


1714

Board of Longitude offered £20000 for solution to longitude.


1720

Halley succeeded Flamsteed as Director Greenwich Observatory


1720

Cassini proposed a geodetic ft = 1 terrestrial minute of arc


1721

Hadley reflecting telescope 200X Mag 6 ft long


1723

La Hire. Level instrument with floating gun sights.


1724

Burgh (Dublin) used double meridian distance to compute areas.


1725

New observatory in Japan. Accepted Copernican system.


1726

Petersburg Acad.Sc.founded by Peter the Great.


1727

Bradley aberration of stars idea conceived.


1730

Sisson making theodolites with micrometers.


1731

Godfrey's sea quadrant.  (USA)


1732

Hadley's octant reading to 1 min arc.


1732

George Washington born


1733

De Moivre's normal distribution.


1733

Herschel introduced reflecting telescope used in today's 1" theodolites.


1733

Cassini began parallel arc measure St Malo to Strasbourg.


1734

Publication of first Russian Atlas.


1735

Start of Peru arc expedition. Used Toise de Perou.


1735

La Condamine observed free fall acc due to gravity by pendulum


1735

to 7  La Condamine, Godin and Bouguer found length equat: secs pendulum 


1735

Invariable pendulum by Mairan  used by Maupertuis at Pello 1736


1735-42

French arc by Maupertuis in Lapland.  See p 50 for details


1736

Bouguer at foot of Chimborazo to experiment of deflection of vertical.


1736

Six Roman linear standards on tablet in Rome measured by Folkes of Roy.Soc.


1737

De L'isle measured base on ice Petersburg to Cronstadt.


1737

Clairaut, Maclaurin proved Newton's law of gravitation.


1737

Clairaut proved Newton's hypothesis of oblate earth.


1737

Leigh - sextant with artificial fluid horizon


1738

French Acad. announced that Cassini prolate earth had been rejected.


1739

to 40.  C F Cassini III, and Lacaille repeated earlier Cassini II arc measure.


1739

to 40. Cassini and LaCaille resurveyed Picard arc and added 5 bases.


1740

Age of scientific instrument makers began with Langlois


1740

Celcius discovered short period variations of magnetic declinations.



His temperature scale used.


1742

Bradley succeeded Halley as Director Greenwich Observatory.


1742

Roy.Soc.organised manufacture of Yard measure based on Elizabeth's of 1588


1742

Results from Peru expedition- oblate earth.


1743

Clairaut published Theorie de la Figure de la terre.  See p 52


1743

pendulum.


1744

Cassini de Thury IV began Carte topographique de la France


1744

to 99.  Triangulation linking Greenwich and Paris.


1745

C F Cassini's (III) transversal cylindrical projection.


1747

Murdoch Mackenzie's hydrographic surveys of Orkneys. 


1747

to 1803.  Survey of British Isles.


1747

La Condamine proposed length equatorial secs pendulum as standard.


1748

Bradley described nutation.


1749

Faye found free air reduction of g. 


1749

D'Alembert proved Bradley theory of precession


1750

La Caille catalogued 10 000 stars at Capetown in two years.


1750

to 69. Arc measure of Liesganig, Varasdin-Brno.


1750

Meridian arc Rome - Rimini by Boscovich and Meyer.


1750

Stuart and Revett measured Parthenon.


1750

Chezy internal grinding of spirit level vials.


1750

Naime, London. Manufacturing barometers, thermometers etc


1750

Boscovich compensation theory of crustal masses.


1751

to 1753. La Caille arc in S Africa.


1757

Marine chart of English Channel by Buache (France) Or 1737. See R107p141


1758

Bird made a standard for Parliamentary committee


1758

Cook charted St Lawrence river.


1758

Breithaupt - hanging theodolite.


1759

to 60. Beccaria arc in Piemont near Turin.


1759

Chinese azimuth compass in gimbal mounting for use at sea.


1761

Cassini III began parallel arc Brest to Vienna


1762

Ramsden opened workshop in London.


1763

Harrison and Leroy. First ship chronometer.


1764

Brander theodolite maker.


1764

Osterwald used a wooden bridge to support measuring rods on Bavarian base


1764

to 68. Mason-Dixon arc measure. Wooden box-type rods


1765

Meyer's widow received payment for his lunar tables.


1766

Louis XIV edict on Toise de Perou.


1767

Bird wrote The Method of Dividing Astronomical Instruments.


1767

Maskelyne- first nautical almanac


1769

Transit of Venus.


1770

to 83. Guinand (Swiss) worked on improving flint glass.


1770

Mayer suggested to Ramsden using his dividing engine for full circles


1770

Hahn (G) -first reliable and durable calculating machines, different sizes.


1770

Mining Academies established Berlin, Pribram (CZ), Sopron (Hun), Petersburg


1771

Watts stadia tacheometry


1772

Lambert's conic projection


1772

Radcliffe observatory founded in Oxford. Since 1948 has been in S Africa


1773

Adams artificial horizon for sextant.


1774

Maskelyne and Hutton plummet method for g, Mt Schehallien.


1774

Harrison finally got his reward for chronometer.


1775

to 77.  Ramsden constructed dividing engine.


1775

Mining Acad. established in Clausthal inHasrz Mts.


1775

to 83. Introduction of 4 screw theods in USA


1778

Green inserted a micrometer in the eyepiece


1780

French weavers used punch cards. Jacquard of Lyons


1782

Troughton Bros took over Rowley old shop.


1783

Muller calculator


1783

Roy began triangulation in England.


1784

Roy base on Hounslow Heath with glass rods.


1784

Prony produced 17 vols of Tables du Cadastre with logs nat. figs to 14 decs.  1 - 200 000. Used centesimal angular division.


1785

Theodolite by Ramsden


1785

Boscovich observed free fall acc due to gravity by pendulum


1785

Borda's repeating circle with two telescopes.


1785

Remeasure Hounslow base by Williams, Mudge andDalby.


1785

Rittenhouse used spider webs as cross hairs


1787

Ramsden made 3 ft diameter circle to 1 sec by micrometer.



His direction theodolite


1787

French instrument makers (Fortin etc) formed a corporation.


1787

Channel crossing by triangulation. Roy, Cassini,Legendre and Mechain


1787

Legendre's solution of fundamental geodetic triangle computation


1789

Sir John R Miller raised the decimal question in House of Commons.


1790

400g to circle introduced in France, S Germany and Switzerland.


1790

French repetition theodolite


1790

Cary apprentice under Ramsden.


1790

Metric committee in France. Borda, Condorcet,Lagrange, Laplace,Monge


1790

Borda et al expressed planetary distances in earth radii; need for R value



Suggested quadrant as 10 000 000 m


1790

Barrow meridian arc lat 23º 18'


1790

Talleyrand proposed length of secs. pendulum as a unit of length.


1791

Fr. Decimal Committee recommended 1/10M of quadrant as a metre.


1791

 Longitude and horary graphs for mariners.


1791

Borda and Cassini IV pendulum obs at Paris Observatory.


1791

First contour maps in France.


1791

French baselines by 30 ft firwood rods.


1791

to 99   Br Admiralty Hydrographer, Hurd, charted Bermuda.


1791

OS of Great Britain founded. 


1792

Sawitch flattening from pendulum obs.


1792

to 99  Delambre and Mechain arc in France as part solution to metre value.


1792

22 September. French Republic established.


1793

Third Report by Decimal Committee. 1 prov. m = 443.44 P Lines.


1794

Vega, Nautical Almanac, also log. slide rule replacing Galilei sector.


1795

Metric system legalised in France.


1796

Czar Paul instituted the Dépot of Maps. 


1797

Dallabella,Lisbon, inverse  square law of magnetic force.


1798

Cavendish determined earth density.   His torsion balance.


1798

Napoleon's officers discovered the nilometer on Elephant Is in the Nile.


1798

Mechain & Delambre submitted their results.


1799

Prototype legal metre in France.


1799

Delambre published Methodes analytiques pour la determination ....meridien.


18 C

English scientists used French pied du roi of 144 Paris lines  (=325 mm).


18 C

Horrebow-Talcott latitude method.


c1800

Lehmann (1765-1811) put shape of hachures on a mathematical basis.


1800

Munich becoming centre of continental instrument making. 


1800

Senefelder introduced flatbed on stone block and offset printing


1801

Depot General de la Guerre began production of Carte de la Baviere.


1801

Paris parallel arc begun. Strassburg-Munich.


1801

Svanberg reobserved Lapland arc of Maupertuis.


1802

Flinders hydrographic surveys of Gulf of Carpenteria.


1802

Laplace proved Mayer correct (1765) and added term to moon latitude equation.



Hence reversed process and found earth flattening.


1802

to3  Laplace derivation of pressure-height relationship.


1802

von Zach & von Muffling baseline for Thuringian triag. near Gotha.



Terminal points as cannons set vertically. First used by Roy in 1791


1802

to 1822.  Triangulation began in India. 


1804

Repetition theodolite by Reichenbach.


1804

Sacharof and Robertson balloon ascent from St Petersburg. 


1804

Mechain proposed extension of French arc to Balearic Is.


1804

Mechain died in despair at errors in astro. lat of Barcelona.  See p 60


1804

to 1811.  Lambton parallel arc through Madras


1805

Legendre applied least squares to French arc of 1792. See p 60


1805

Senefelder invented zincography


1806

Legendre- length of a geodesic.


1806

to 08.  Biot and Arago extended French arc to Formentera on Balearic Is. 



Arago wrote about it in his Historie de ma jeunesse.


1806

Illig. In papermaking, replaced animal glue by resin or alum.


1807

Hassler founded US Coast & Geodetic Survey. 


1807

Arago suggested use of sound to measure depths. 


1808

Gauss astrolabe. Simultaneous determination of lat. and long.


1808

to 25.  Biot, Mathieu, theory of mathematical pendulum.


1810

Soldner replaced plane rect. coords. by spherical rect. coords.


1810

Senefelder invented transfer printing.


1810

Review of French arc measures revealed short comings.



Napoleon refused permission to re survey Lapland arc. 


1811

Mechanical press by Konig.


1811

Laplace induced French to survey parallel arc of Marennes to Fiume (Istria)



Interrupted by war of 1813-14.


1811

Bohnenberger suggested an inverted (reversible) pendulum


1812

French troops noticed an English built transit in Moscow and saved it 



from the big fire lit by Russians in self defence.


1812

Pond catalogue of polar distances of 43 stars. 


1814

Stern calculator


1814

First survey ships on British Navy list


1814

Planimeter by Herman.


1815

Triangulation in Italy.


1816

Start of Struve triangulation.


1816

to 17.  First US baseline by Hassler at Tinively Valley.



Second base on Long Island.


1817

Struve initiated his meridian arc 


1817

Kater reversible pendulum. Suggested by Prony 1792 & Bohnenberger 1811


1818

Laplace published Theorie analytique des probabilités


1818

Brousseaud & Nicollet observed Brest to Strasbourg on parallel of Paris.


1819

Bohnenberger gyroscopic theory and construction of his precession machine.


1819

Young's modulus of elasticity


1820

Fraunhofer engraved cross hairs by diamond.


1820

Thomas (F) Arithmometer


1820

Struve baseline near Dorpat.


1820

Schumacher baseline in Holstein


1820

Gauss used heliotrope on Hanover arc.


1820

to 24; and 1838-53. Complete triangulation of Great Britain.


1820

Topographic survey began in Russia under Schubert


1821

Carline and Plana recomputed Beccaria's arc.


1821

Carlini deflection of plumb line at Mt Cenis


1821

Gauss triangulation and arc measure adjusted by least squares.


1821

to 22.  Carlini and Plana filled gap between Alps and Turin in arc of Marennes. 



Rockets or powder signals for simult. obs. for longitudes.


1822

Babbage Difference machine.


1822

Fitzroy on Beagle in Sydney to determine longitude of Parramatta Obsy.


1822

Parramatta observatory established by Sir Thomas Brisbane.


1822

Memphis cubit rod (pre Rameses I) found at Jomar.


1823

Bonne baseline at Brest for parallel arc


1823

to 28.  30 000 miles of African coast charted by Owen.


1824

First standard yard reached Sydney


1825

Bessel refined Kater pendulum


1825

Parallel arc Munich to Budapest


1825

India confirmed the 1556 Akbar yard of 33 E Inch = 25 Indus inch



= the Indian yard.


1826

OS of Ireland begun by Colby.


1826

Drummond invented heliostat and limelight.


1826

Troughton and Simms partnership in instrument making.


1826

Niepce photoengraving = photo intaglio


1826

Oldendorps planimeter


1827

Colby surveys


1827

Babinet suggested light wave as natural unit of length


1827

math. figure of earth in terms of geometric measurements.


1828

Schmidt compuation of Hannover triangulation. To Gauss instructions.


1828

Bohnenberger used spherical coordinates.


1828

to 32.  Map of nineteen counties by Thomas Mitchell, Australia


1828

Ramsden 10 ft rod arrived in Sydney  to standardise chains.


1829

Cooke began instrument making career


1829

Russian triangulation connected to Konigsberg observatory. Hence parallel arc England-France-Prussia-Russia.


1830

Prussia took lead in geodesy from S Germany.



Foundation of Trigonometrische Abteilung des Preuss.


1831

to 41.  Bessel triangulation in E Prussia.


1832

to 33. Henderson further meridian arc obs. CapeTown.



Related computations by Olufsen, Breen and Stone.


1832

Everest baseline at Calcutta using Colby apparatus.


1832

Hengler horizontal pendulum for deflection of plumbline.


1833

Poisson work on seismic waves.


1833

Stokes formula for distance between geoid and spheroid.


1834

Jacobi triaxial ellipsoid. Followed by Clarke and Schubert.


1834

Baeyer and Bessel on Prussian oblique arc. Base at Trenk


1834

to 48.  Babbage analytical engine.


1835

Gauss and Weber fundamental study of geomagnetism


1836

Mayer idea tpo determine eccentricty of ellipsoid by triang. of skew meridian


1837

Poisson distribution.  See p 48 for other names.


1838

First astronomical observatory in USA at Williamstown.


1839

Daguerre-Niepce reproduction of pictures by photographic emulsion.


1839

Bessel toise.


1840

Bessel spheroidal formulae


1840

Blondat rubber hose over 50 m for hydrostatic levelling


1840

Weisbach triangle in mine surveying


1840

Everest theodolite, Indian subtense bar.


1840

Precise traversing heads for mine survey by Breithaupt Kassel


1840

to 80.  S Australian triangulation included 7 bases. see Frome on Surveying.


1841

Talbot developed photographic negative


1841

Puissant discovered error of 68t in distance Formentera-Montjouy


1841

to 78. Great Lakes triangulation USA suffered from bad base. (Sacle)


1841

Everest base at Bidar by Colby bars.


1842

J F Herschel discovered method of sun printing in blue


1842

Ertel level with stadia hairs and horizontal circle


1843

Chesterman cloth tape reinforced by wire.


1843

Sumner, USA used position lines


1844

Struve obtained permission to extend his arc to Tornea


1844

Belgian triangulation using broken ray technique.


1844

Chambers log tables


1845

Staffel of Warsaw. Calculator


1845

Stampfer discussed precision of pointing in relation to target shape


1846

to1902.  USCGS arc measures


1847

to 56.  Parallel arc Astrachan-Kishinev


1848

to 56. Brest-Tchernowitz parallel arc observed. Extended to 20º by Wrochenko.


1848

Many Laplace stns around Moscow by Schweizer.


1848

Maclear remeasure of La Caille arc in S Africa.


1848

Roche density of the earth


1849

Maurel & Jayet (F) calculator


1849

Kellner compound eyepiece.


1849

Stokes on variation of gravity at surface of earth


1849

Laussedat architectural photographs for measurements.


1850

Vidie, Bourdon and Schinz independently invented metal capsule barometer


1850

Foucault pendulum used to prove rotation of earth.


1850

Reichenbach perfected his stadia hair method


1850

-51.  Le Gray and Archer. Photographic plates


1851

Airy transit circle installed at Greenwich


1852

Struve arc extended by Tenner towards Murmansk and Danube estuary.


1852

Stampfer optical plumbing in mines.


1853

Oppert found Assyrian ft standard at Babylon to be 329 mm for 30 shusi


1853

Porro anallactic lens


1853

-58.  Porro, Koppe & Meydenbaur developed principles of photogrammetry.


1854

Amsler polar planimeter


1854

Airyu flotation theory of earth crust.


1855

Alum lithoplates by Poitevin


1855

Balloon photography in Paris by Nadar alias Tournachon



and in Boston, USA and Solferino, Italy


1855

Pratt observed deflection of plumbline in Himalayas.


1855

Levelling used to determine settlement for first time. Near Stuttgart.


1856

Stokes theory of physical pendulum


1857

Parallel arc from Valencia (Eire) to Orsk suggested by Struve


1858

Error or standard ellipse by Andrae.


1858

Anaglyphic stereoscopic viewing by d'Almada


1858

-59.  Bertaud objective + Brunner camera box + theodolite for contours by photo.


1859

to 77.Spanish triangulation. Connected to N Africa at Laghouat, Algiers


1859

Schubert computed tri-axial ellipsoid


1859

Eckholdt omnimeter measured a tangent ratio by screw.


1859

Amsler reversible level.


1860

Hayford clarified concepts of isostasy.


1860

Triangulation England-France. Clarke computed arc and again in 1866 and 1880


1860

Base in Victoria, Australia 5½ miles long. Took 9 months


1860

in 1876-7. On to Tunisia in 1884-5


1860

-80.  Andrae, Sonderhof & Helmert discussed lateral refraction.


1860

Sir Wm Thompson (Lord Kelvin) pressure tube for water depths.


1861

Bessel ideas on reversible pendulum constructed by Lohmeier of Hamburg.


1861

Norwegian geodetic commission formed


1861

Gen Baeyer plan of international cooperation in geodesy. Became IUGG


1861

-72.  Central European parallel arc from Haverford to Orsk.


1861

Third connection England-France. Others 1787 and 1822


1863

Kelvin theory of tides of earth crust.


1863

Hoskold put plane mirror in front of theodolite for optical plumbing.


1864

First meeting of IUGG


1864

Baselines at terminals of Norwegian Trig.  Christiana and Rinderleret.


1865

Italian geodetic commission formed. 


1865

Precise levelling in Saxony by Nagel and Prussia and Bavaria in 1867


1865

Pujo fundamentals of photogrammetry


1866

Villarceau general formula of Laplace equation.


1866

Clarke computed triaxial ellipsoid


1866

Hydrographic Office of U S Navy formed.


1866

Von Wullerstorf idea of aneroid for relative gravimetry.


1867

Spain, Portugal and Russia join IUGG


1867

Precise levelling with Breithaupt instruments in Berlin.


1868

New S Wales. Baselines at Lake George and Richmond.


1868

Helmert worked on error ellipse


1868

  Villarceau and Bruns computations of geoid.


1868

Creation of Prussian Geodetic Institute in Berlin.


1869

Zollner horizontal pendulum


1869

-70.  Viertel, theodolite + eccentric telescope set vertical by autocollimation.


1870

Helmert became Director of Zentral Bureau der Int. Erdmessung in Berlin. 


1870

Gauss five figure log tables.


1870

-88. Revision of French arc Perpignan-Melun. Used Brunner theodolites.


1871

Maddox photogelatine printing, dry plates.


1871

Jordan optical plummet by refracting line of sight from 45 deg. mirror.


1871

Brunner baseline equipment for European work


1871

-98.  Arc measure on 39th parallel in USA from Atlantic to Pacific



Ten baselines


1871

Thin, 66 ft, tape of crinoline steel introduced in Australia.


1872

Barrel type calculating machine with toothed wheel. By Baldwin, USA


1872

Schreiber test of circle graduations


1873

Nagel designed and constructed theodolite for optical plumbing.


1873

Jordan, Finsterwalder mapping from photographs. 


1873

Colour photography by Vogel, Clark Ducos du Hauron. After idea by Maxwell 1857


1873

Listing introduced tem Geoid


1873

Todhunter book on History of Theory... published.


1873

10 Laplace stations in Harz mountains.


1874

Transit of Venus in NSW 


1874

Hansen testing line scales.


1874

New International metre standard deposited at Paris.


1875

Marc St Hilaire dead reckoning for position lines.


1875

18 countries sign Treaty in Paris to establish Int.Bur.of Wts and Measures


1875

Helmert method of accuracy of graduation of horizontal circles.


1875

Peirce, USA determined vibration (or flexure) of pendulum support.


1876

Algiers parallel reached Kap Bon and Sicily


1876

Helmert defined line of sight in telescopes


1876

Zacharie (Denmark) rectangular spherical computations.


1876

Lord Kelvin harmonic analyser for tidal prediction.


1877

Photogravure printing


1878

Ohdner calculating machine.


1878

Couturier reflection level with suspended telescope.


1879

Ibanez and Perrier observed quad across Mediterranean to join French arc  to N African parallel.


1879

German level datum in Berlin connected to Amsterdam gauge.


1879

Geoid map of Central Asia by Fergana


1880

Nagel-Hildebrand optical plummet on interchangeable traverse heads.


1880

Forster, Eggert, Broun, increase of visual acuity by coincidence method


1880

Hollerith punch cards with electrical switch feeler


1880

Von Sterneck pendulum with coincidence apparatus.


1880

Term nomograph coined by D'Ocagne


1880

Jaderin introduced new baseline technique with thin steel wires.


1881

Mendenhall deflection of vertical at Mt Fujiyama


1881

Offset printing by Champenois


1882

Free swinging plumb bobs used in German shaft plumbing


1883

Harmonic analysis of tides by G H Darwin and J C Adams


1883

Longitude connection Singapore-Darwin-Sydney by Barrachi & Darwin


1883

First geoid maps of Harz by Andrae


1883

Fergola suggested Int. latitude service


1883

-91. Queensland triangulation


1884

Helmert dynamic correction


1884

Great Britain joined Metric Convention


1884

-90. Development of several types of camera including photo-theo.by Paganini


1885

Algiers parallel reached Tunisia


1885

Report from Berlin on 14 differing toise scales unsed in Europe Triangulation.


1886

Scholz worked on error ellipse


1887

Lallemand- orthometric correction


1887

-92. Michelson and later Benoit determined number of red waves in cadmium



in one metre.


1888

Lorenzoni, Italy, determined vibration (or flexure) of pendulum support.


1888

Penrose measured the Parthenon in Athens.


1888

Introduction of terrestrial photogrammetry by Deville, Canada


1888

-96.  Eotvos torsion balance for gravity components


1889

Bllee calculating machine


1889

Austrian, French and German officers mapped Greece.


1889

More countries join IUGG


1889

Barr and Stroud glass wedge for optical distance measurement.


1889

Dutton coined term isostasy


1889

-93.  Various experiments with horizontal pendulum


1890

Rotogravure by Klie


1890

Algraphy= aluminium sheet printing by Scholz, Mullaly and Bullock (1891).


1890

Fennel, Kassel theodolite with in built optical plummet


1890

-03. Precise levelling Kronstadt - Black Sea -Sea of Azov


1890

-35. Triangulation Brest - Astrachan


1890

De Grousilliers suggested to Zeiss idea of stereophotogrammetry


1891

Chile, Peru covered with triangulation


1892

Brunsvega twin desk calculator


1892

French physicists introduce wavelength method to define the metre


1892

Pulfrich constructed a rangefinder with floating mark (of Stolze)


1892

-10.  First geodetic levelling of Finland.


1893

Three colour process by Kurtz


1893

-98. Diagram tacheometer by Poncagli, Urbani and Hammer. Italy.


1894

Double image optical distance measurement. Richards USA


1894

Guilleaume suggested use of hypsometer with mercury barometer for g at sea


1895

First stereo plotter by Machand, Deville in Canada


1895

Relief printing mechanical press


1896

Guilleaume developed invar for survey tapes.


1896

Finsterwalder and Hugerhoff phototheodolite.


1896

Geoidal profiles computed in Berlin


1896

-03.  Work of Scheimpflug on photogrammetry


1896

-06.  Helmert experiment on fluctuation of equipotential surface.


1897

Russian Engineers used photos to locate railways near Chinese borders


1897

Act of Parliament in GR to legalise metric system


1898

Russian-Swedish expedition to Spitzbergen. Used Jaderin wires


1898

Hildebrand optical plummet for nadir and zenith plumbing


1898

-05.  Four metre subtense bar used in German E Africa


1899

Austrian Marine obs of refraction at sea horizon


19 C

Turkey mapped by Austrian Military surveyors


19 C

Bulgaria mapped by Russian officers


c1900

1400 absolute gravity stations observed. Used to adjust Helmert formula


1900

Kites with combined cameras used in Moscow by Thiele.


1901

Geoid map of Switzerland by Messerschmitt


1901

Stereocomparator by Abbe, Pulfrich and Zeiss.


1902

Helmert work on spheroidal formulae


1902

Invar staves used for precise levelling in Europe.


1902

-06.  Reobservation of Peru arc. See p 76. 


1902

-09.  Hayford ellipsoid. Also topo.-isostatic reduction formula.


1903

First geoid map of US East coast by USCGS


1903

Double point resection by Finsterwalder


1904

Albrecht test to determine long. diff. Potsdam-Brocken Mt by wireless



in comparison with telegraphic transmission.


1904

Absolute gravity observed at Dehra Dun


1905

Rudski inversion method for reduction of masses above geoid


1905

Wild theodolite with microscope for both verniers next to telescope


1905

Bykow. Suggested level recording inst. using pendulum and rev. counter. 


1905

-54.  Triangulation Cape to Cairo. ie 30th meridian


1906

Photocomposing machine in lithography by Huebner


1906

Helmert method to find earth axes from trig and gravity obs.


1907

Stereoplotter by Thompson


1907

Schweydar theory of coeff of rigidity of earth.


1907

Wild.Coincidence setting of both verniers with microscope.


1908

Stereo autograph by von Orel of Vienna.


1908

Carl Zeiss Jena established geodetic instrument section


1908

-11.  Triangulation in Fiji by Lee, Rimmer, McCaw


1909

Zeiss parallelogram by Bauersfeld


1909

Prismastrolabium by vonClaude & Driencourt.


1909

Pratt-Hayford isostatic system


1910

Hayford investigated mean ellipsoid from gravity data


1910

Zwicky tacheometer with two telescopes.


1910

Photographic cross-sections of tunnel profiles in Austria


1910

-13.  Antarctic triangulation Ross Sea area by Debenham


1911

Further 2736 absolute garvity stations. Helmert forula readjusted 1915


1911

Hammer method of adjusting trilateration.


1911

Wilski double wire shaft plumbing.


1911

Wild's Zeiss III precision level with parallel plate micrometer.


1912

Bowie working on isostasy


1912

Foundation of International Time Bureau in Paris. (BIH).


1912

Kruger method to transform conformal coords to adjacent zones


1912

-13.  Wegener found large vertical refraction in Greenland


1912

-17.  Bowie gravity obs in USA, Canada, India and Europe.


1912

-21. Second geodetic levelling of Great Britain


1913

Tardivo at Int. Cong. described aerial photog. from aeroplanes for mapping.


1914

Haussmann suggested a gyrotheodolite


1914

-18.  Karolus, Mittelstadt & Huttel determined speed of light on geodetic  base near Leipzig.


1917

Bowie published "Investigations of gravity and isostasy.


1919

IUGG formed.  Germany only joined in 1956


1920

Karolus constructed modern Kerr cell as used in geodimeter.


1921

Astrolabe attachment for theodolite by Reeves.


1921

Stein found evidence of Indus inch inGobi desert.


1921

Wild founded own workshop in Heerbrugg


1922

Anschutz constructed first gyrotheodolite.


1922

Parana river crossing. Levels by simult. z.d. 


1922

-27.  Athanassiadis (Gk) suggested to link Crete with N Africa by flare 



triangulation with balloons


1923

Vening Meinesz working on isostasy


1923

Plane parallel plate for Vaisala interference comparator.


1923

Design of Wild T2 complete


1923

Vening Meinesz gravity obs in submarine


1924

Glass circles & optical micrometer designed by Wild, built by Zeiss.


1924

Zeiss-Bosshardt double-image tacheometer.


1924

Barometric lapse rate formula.


1924

Acceptance of Hayford ellipsoid as Int. Ellipsoid of IUGG


1924

Foundation of Baltic GeodeticCommission by Bonsdorff


1924

-38.  Heiskanen observed over 2000 gravity stations.


1924

-38. Airy-Heiskanen isostatic system


1925

Launch of Wild T3


1925

Defant- tidal theory


1926

Research into vertical refraction by Geiger and Kukkamaki


1926

Heiskanen ellipsoid


1926

Astro levelling by Aguilar in Argentina.


1926

CTS 1" theodolite


1927

Sun compass by Bumstead for polar flights.


1927

Coast  to coast precise levelling in USA


1927

Somigliani derived major axis of geoid from gravity measures alone


1927

Differential analyser for use in digital computer By Bush, USA


1927

Experiments with echosounders by Behm (G)


1928

Triangulation of Alai-Pamir by Germans under Finsterwalder


1928

IAG first published International Bibliography.


1928

Static quartz gravimeter by Noergaard


1928

Empirical gravity formula by Heiskanen


1929

Deflection of dams by precise geodetic methods. Lang, Switzerland


1929

Vening-Meinesz three pendulum gravimeter for use at sea


1930

Somigliani and Cassini added theoretical term to to Heiskanen 1928 formula


1930

Holweck-Lejay astatic pendulum


1930

Lejay, S.J. director of Observatory Zi-Ka-Wei near Shanghai


1930

Gravimeters specifically for oil exploration. Truman, USA


1930

45º prismatic astrolabe by Baker.


1930

Pendulum astrolabe by Willis.


1930

Error analysis by Ljutz.


1930

Spring balance principle gravimeter


1930

-31.  Wegener Greenland crossing. Used trig. levelling.


1931

Haalck gravimeter on barometric principle


1931

Heiskanen tables of isostatic reductions


1931

Hildebrand special optical plummet for shipbuilding.


1931

Gas pressure gravimeter


1931

-41.  Vening-Meinesz modified Airy regional floating theory.


1931

Heiskanen definition of spheroidal earth.   See p 83



and also equilibrium earth.


1932

Photo.registration of horz. circle reading on theodolites. Berroth


1932

Bifilar gravimeter by Tomaschek


1933

Berroth established procedures for flare triangulation


1934

Triangulation of Nanga-Parbat


1934

Hirvonen used Stokes formula to recompute geoid.


1934

-35.  Heye, Cooke absolute gravity in washington.


1935

N African parallel arc Nemours - Carthago and W to Casablanca.


1935

Echo sounder improved by Wood and others.


1935

Germany instructed Surveyors to switch to centesimal circle graduations


1935

Australian SArmy Svy Corp bought first metric tapes


1935

-55.  Secoind Geodetic levelling of Finland by Kukkamaki et al.


1936

Int.Lat. Service moved to Naples from Kimura


1936

Hilger Watts 1" microptic theodolite


1936

Three way optical plumb by Zeiss


1936

Norlund pioneered hydrostatic precise levelling


1936

-38. J S Clark NPL absolute gravity


1938

Charter for OS recommended metric grid.


1938

Plane parallel plate for precise level by Wild(Zeiss).


1938

Calibration od invar base wires by Vaisala interference comparator


1938

Cowle, USA had idea of adjustment by electrical analogue


1939

Graf, Berlin. static gravimeter


1939

Test of Berroth flare triangulation inGermany


1939

Automatic level compensator by Meissner


1941

Hinterkeuser error theory of flare triangulation


1941

Gulf underwater gravimeter


1942

Roelofs solar prism


1942

Krasovsky ellipsoid


1943

ICAN Standard Atmosphere for barometric levelling.


1944

HARVARD MARK 1 by Aiken. Electronic computer with punch tape.


1944

Underwater photogrammetry began in USA


1945

Multiplex radar controlled air photography.


1945

ENIAC by Mauchly et al. USA.


1945

Norlund levelled 21 km across Baltic Sea using lead pipe.


1945

Split of Carl Zeiss Jena to give Carl-Zeiss Obserkochen & VEB Carl Zeiss


1945

-46.  Flare triangulation by British, US and Norway 


1946

-51.  Rice and van Steenwijk studies on deflection of plumbline



Absolute gravity work by Bullard, Ivanov, Browne, Morelli, Jeffreys, Woollard


1946

Russian tri-axial ellipsoid.  See p 84


1946

Dutch discovered radio astro with ex-war radar.


1946

Vaisala stellar triangulation


1947

Speert, USGS adjustment by electrical analogue.


1947

Electric eye for telescopes by Gigas


1947

-48.  Fully automatic elevation recorders


1947

-48.  Global triangulation initiated by Finns. Hirvonen in Brazil and 



Kukkamaki in W Africa


1948

Mears, Whitford USA telescope for occultation obs.


1948

Jungwirth modified submarine gyro compass to fit theodolite


1948

Invention of transistor by Bell Laboratories USA


1949

-65.  Level testers of high precision. See p 85


1950

Reflecting telescope by Kern for 1st order triangulation


1950

Gyroscopes in aerial cameras. (Italy)


1950

Gyroscopes in theodolites by Fennel.


1950

Moves by Hotine, Marussi, Levallois, Dufour to replace geoid by quasi geoid 



Molodensky and Hirvonen defined by space coords instead of siurface coords.


1950

Hough & Whitten adjusted SW European & N African trig. blocks


1950

Van Heel,Moonen & Richardus used interference patterns in alignment svy.


1950

Honkasalo inver-mercury thermometer for baselines


1951

Automatic level Ni2 by Zeiss Oberkochen


1951

Fourth connection UK - France by triangulation.


1951

-59.  Third geodetic levelling of Great britain


1952

Askania Askania micro-barometer for diff. of height.


1952

Random disturbances of earth rotation. Brouwer, USA. 


1953

VEB Carl Zeiss 1" theodolite 010


1953

Wankie and Sabi bases (S Rhod) by Bradford. Invar resistance thermometer.


1954

Ellenberger reported on elasticity of earth.


1954

Invention of geodimeter ??


1955

Diff. between dynamic and orthometric hts discussed in Rome


1956

Advent of satellites


1956

Irene Fisher geoid chart of USA


1956

Hough ellipsoid of Western hemisphere


1956

Obs of satellites by interferometer, Doppler effect and radar.


1957

Sea surface gravimeter by Graf.


1957

Fisher- Chovitz figure of earth. See p 88


1957

Jerie analogue computer


1957

-58. International Geophysical Year


1958

Baker-Nunn camera for satellite obs.


1958

Several independent adjustments of 68 European level loops. See pp 88,89


1958

Tellurometer traverses replace triangulation in Australia


1959

Development of super wide angle camera by Wild


1959

First spatial photograph of moon by Lunik III


1959

Prismastrolabium by Danjou.


1960

Fennel, Kassel gyrotheodolite with suspended gyroscope.


1960

Int. agreement of metre as 1 650 763.73 wavelengths krypton 86 in vacuo


1960

Yard - metre relation as 0.9144 m


1960

De Graaff Hunter theory on shape of earth suirface


1960

Harrison USA gravity measurement in aeroplane


1960

Astro-geodetic World Datum for geoid.



Also agreement on standards of length.  See p 89


1960

Mobile cameras for satellite geodesy


1961

Irene Fischer comprehensive study of shape of geoid.


1961

Cooperation between NASA and USCGS in geodetic satellite programme


1963

Fifth connection England - France by triangulation & trilateration


1963

Hydrostatic levelling using frozen lake Ijsselmeer


1964

Automatic level Zeiss Ni4 by Drodofsky. Spirit bubble as pendulum


1965

Light weight gyrotheodolites by Wild, MOM etc


1966

VEB Carl Zeiss astro-geodetic theo 0.2"


1967

Daylight signalling lamp with quartziodine globes. Australia


1967

Geodolite by Spectra Physics, USA