## -4713 to 1967

-4713 |
Julian datum. Counting days commenced. 01.01.1960 had |
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JD 2 436 935.00 astro. days |
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-4200 |
Babylonian year of 365 days |
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-4000 |
Babylonian land title and law suits on clay tablets |
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-3800 |
Babylonians used analog devices for surveying and map making |
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-3500 |
Glass in Egypt |
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-3000 |
Northern cubit a standard of length. Mesopotamia, Egypt, N Africa, India, China |
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-3000 |
Egyptian river gauge called the Palermo stone. |
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-3000 |
Egyptian world a rectangular box, Egypt in centre, sky was a flat or domed ceiling supported by columns or high mountains. |
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-2900 |
Glass in Mesopotamia. A lens from Nineveh in Br. Museum |
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-2780 |
Pyramids erected first at Gizeh by Cheops et al. Base perimeter = ½ geog. mile |
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-2600 |
Egyptian standard of length on grey basalt column 53 cm long. |
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-2500 |
Egyptian foot = ½ northern cubit = 13.2 inch. Egypt and Indus valley. |
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-2290 |
Gudea, High priest shown on tablet holding a plane table on his knees. |
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Statue of Gidea in Louvre, shows Sumerian cubit = 30 fingers = 19.6 inch |
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This standard used to set out Tower of Babel (Ziggurat of Ur). |
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?? |
Egyptian papyrus map of Nubian goldmines near Koptos. |
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-2000 |
Crude lenses in Crete and coast of Asia Minor, made of rock crystal. |
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-2000 |
Nine Chinese bronze vases depicted nine provinces + mountains, rivers etc |
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-2000 |
Babylonians used astronomical phenomena for astrological purposes. |
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-2000 |
Chaldeans divided day and night into 12 hours each. |
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Predicted eclipses, equator divided to 360º, named 12 signs of zodiac. |
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-2000 |
Mathematics for surveyors began with the triangle. |
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-2000 |
Chinese algebra began |
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Greeks solved problems by geometrical means. |
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Babylonians advanced into cubic and biquadratic equations. |
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-2000 |
Egyptian unequal hour shadow clock. |
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-1850 |
Egyptian papyrus on geometrical problems. |
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-1850 |
Babylonian clay tablet on survey problems. Contained threats to those |
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who might remove boundary stones. |
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-1800 |
Stonehenge erected. |
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-1800 |
Pythagorean theorem |
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-1700 |
Egypt- much practical geometry used in land surveying . |
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-1700 |
Babylonia, Egypt. Computing area and volumes requiring fractions and pi. |
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-1550? |
Egypt, Rhind papyrus describing mensuration, fractions, areas. |
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-1550 |
Egyptian Royal Cubit of Amenhotep I. Now in Louvre. |
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-1500 |
to -200. Chinese surveyors had plumbob, gnomon, water level, counting rods, hand computer, magnetic c ompass, square, groma. |
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-1450 |
to -550. Many relics show Babylonian boundary surveys. |
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-15th C |
Chinese daycount not dependent on sun or moon. Sexagesimal cycles. |
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-15th C |
Clepsydra in Babylonia and Egypt. |
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-1400 |
Text of the time of kurigalzu on ancient boundary stone. |
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-1400 |
Egyptian tomb with pictures of sounding Nile with lead line. |
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-1361 |
First record of lunar eclipse in China. |
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-1350 |
Or -1220. Sacred cubit of Moses = 25 in. = Northern cubit. |
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-14th C |
28 lunar mansions = moon stations of zodiac in Chinese literature. |
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-13th C |
Lunation of 29.53 days in China |
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-1250 |
Ramses II (-1292t o -1225) instructed to erect tomb for a surveying engineer. |
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-1217 |
First record of solar eclipse in China. |
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-12th C |
Egypt. Simple and complex geometrical figures on urns etc |
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-1125 |
Official topographic description of China by Wen-Wang. |
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-1000 |
Or -600. Chinese jade work associated with circumpolar constellation templets. |
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Forerunners of the European nocturnal of +1150. |
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-969 |
Israel. Solomon built temple using Northern cubit (= 0.64 m) |
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-900 |
To -500. Homeric Epics mention constellations Orion, Pleiades, Great Bear. |
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-800 |
India. Sulvasutras- had chapter on setting out by ropes and rt. angled triangles. |
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-780 |
China. Earthquakes recorded. |
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-750 |
Hesiodos of Ascra recorded some astronomy. |
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-721 |
Moon eclipse recorded by Babylonians |
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-715 |
Hezekiah, 12th King of Judah, had water conduit of 1098 ft built in Jerusalem. Lateral breakthrough 20 ft. |
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-700 |
Assyrian cubit on baked clay cylinder used to set out Khorsabad. |
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-672 |
Chinese bronze mirrors. |
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-654 |
Winter solstice in China- observed sun shadow with gnomon on tower. |
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-600 |
Phoenicians used Little Bear for navigation. |
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-600 |
Periandros of Greece contemplated canal through Isthmus of Corinth |
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-6th C |
Theodorus of Samos had right-angle instruments |
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-6th C |
China had decimal foot rules in bronze. Ten Chinese inches into tens |
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-6th C |
Yang-Chheng gnomon 6 ft high, extant 1966. Shadow 1.5 ft at summer solstice |
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-6th C |
Pythagoras and his disciples declared earth as a sphere. |
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Thales calculated heights of mountains from shadow length. |
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Thales observed power of the magnet |
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Glass made locally in China |
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Pythagoras’ theory on rays running from eye to object. |
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-592 |
Ezekiel described what he saw from top of a mountain – ie cadastral “map” |
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-575 |
Sundials delivered from Babylonians or Chaldeans to Greeks. |
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-538 |
Josua spent most of his life on cadastral surveys. Knotted cords |
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-532 |
Philolaos discussed rotation of planets including sun around “fire”. |
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-500 |
Babylonians expressed large numbers in multiples of 60. |
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Chinese large numbers in multiples of 10. |
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Romans expressed larger numbers in multiples of 12 or 16. |
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Democritus – formula for volume of pyramid. |
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– to + 1300. Development of cosmological theories. |
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Aristagoras – maps on bronze and iron tablets |
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Babylonian world map on clay tablet. |
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-5th C |
Antiphon, calculus to measure magnitudes of exhaustion. |
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Herodotus attributed beginning of geometry to annual overflow of R Nile. |
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He described aquaduct / tunnel on Samos. |
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-480 |
Greece – 6 mile canal through Mt Athos peninsula. |
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-475 |
Parmenides “moon shines with reflected light”. |
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-450 |
Heracleides – geocentric system of planets. Some round sun, others about earth. |
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Earth rotated about its own axis. |
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-408 |
Eudoxus explained maths of celestial motions. 27 spheres. |
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-400 |
First armillary rings in China. 1464 stars in Chinese catalogue. |
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-400 |
China. Mohists proposed standardisation of length measure. |
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-400 |
Indian method of meridian determination in Surya Siddhanta. |
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Romans attempted orientation of temples, tombs, cities etc. |
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-4th C |
Chou Pei Suan Ching publication on maths and astronomy. |
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Water level to get horz. surface for sun shadow. Meridian from sun rise and set. |
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-4th C |
Studies on vision. Refraction. Reflection. refractive index etc |
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-4th C |
Heaven likened to Hen’s egg, earth to yolk. Circ. 365¼º |
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Shih Shen’s and other star catalogues including Hipparchos. |
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China. Heaven has 9 layers. Distance to sky 20000 li = 6000 km |
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Sun illuminates 167000 li diameter (= 50000 km) |
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Theophrastus and Eudemos wrote histories on cosmography and early astro. |
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Dikaearchos (-350–290) idea of reference line to orient maps. Ran W – E |
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-384 |
Aristotle increased Eudoxus spheres to 55. Concluded earth a sphere. |
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-350 |
Menaechmos, rectangular coord axes. Maybe founder of analytical geometry. |
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-330 |
Theoretical geometry applied to physical science by Mohist Canon Mo Ching. |
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Mention of carpenter’s square. |
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-313 |
onwards. Romans built Aqua Appia. See quote Werner Calendar p 10 |
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-312 |
Aristarchos postulated heliocentric system of planets. Defined ecliptic. |
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Rotation of earth about own axis. Angle between sun and half moon = 87º |
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really 89º 51′. Distance sun-earth 19 x dist. moon-earth. Should be 389 times |
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-300 |
Euclid’s 15 vol. on mathematics, especially geometry. |
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-300 |
Greeks. Complex analogs of solar system |
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-300 |
Start of 500 year domination of Univ. of Alexandria in scientific life. |
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-300 |
Indian world map allowed China 1/81 of world surface. |
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-3rd C |
Apollonius used coordinate axes. |
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-3rd C |
Eratosthenes size of earth Alexandria – Syene. |
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-3rd C |
China. Minute appreciation of topographic features. |
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-3rd C |
Ctesibius refined clepsydra with float. |
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-3rd C |
to + 6th C. Chinese cosmology- heavens a spherical dome, earth an upturned |
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bowl. Distance between domes 80000 li |
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-290 |
to -212. Archimedes staff with flat disc held to cover sun. |
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-290 |
Archimedes solved problems of calculus, analytical and differential geometry |
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-284 |
Eratosthenes suggested coordinate grid over a spherical earth. |
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Fundamental parallel through Rhodes and meridian thro’ Syene, Alexandria etc |
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Lu Pu-Wei assumed earth as flat disc. |
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-270 |
Eudoxus’ work made known through Phenomena and Prognostica. |
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-270 |
Berossos. Inverted hemisphere known as a scaphe. |
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-260 |
Aristarchos. Tangent ratio in right angles. |
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-250 |
Time by hour glass |
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-250 |
Chinese astronomers and mathematicians defined pi 3.14159 |
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-250 |
Timosthenes of Rhodes. Sea charts with distances between harbours |
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-240 |
Halley’s comet of +1682 first recorded in China. |
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-240 |
China. Hodometer -drum carriage to count miles. |
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-227 |
First record of Chinese silk map carried in a wooden box to hide a dagger. |
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-210 |
Chinese relief model of R. Yangtze. |
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-207 |
Emperor Chhin Shih Huang-Ti collected Empire maps. |
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-200 |
Registration of boundaries of areas travelled by Chinese emperors. |
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-200 |
China. 2 ten ft gnomon 1000 li apart N-S. Shadow decreased 1 inch per 1000 li |
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-200 |
Four cardinal points fixed. Data determined for a calendar. |
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-200 |
Appollonius introduced epicycles. |
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-2nd C |
Chinese used negative numbers |
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-190 |
to -125. Hipparchos eccentricty of earth orbit 1/24 RE (really 1/60 RE). |
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Year as 365d 5h 55m (really 49m). Invented? astrolabe. |
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-177 |
Persia. Seleucid Greeks constructed tunnels marked by line of well shafts. |
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c -150 |
Heron’s dioptra for areas, inaccessible heights etc |
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He described standardisation of measuring ropes. Water level and staff. |
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-150 |
Crates. Suggested representing earth as globe divided to 4 equal continents. |
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-140 |
Hipparchus used terms mekos and platos – longitude and latitude. |
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-140 |
Seleucos studied tides in Persian Gulf. |
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-140 |
Hipparchus. Graphical solution of spherical triangles. |
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-130 |
Hipparchos introduced term climata for area between parallels. |
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-120 |
Chinese gnomon up to 40 ft high. |
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-120 |
China. Chuang-Hsiung-Phi built Dragon Head canal with shafts and tunnels. |
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Used metal sighting tube for distance. Water level. Compass. Plumb line. |
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-104 |
Sundials in China with plate inclined in equatorial plane, gnomon pointing at the pole. Some dials with centesimal graduation. |
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-1st C |
Posidonius distancs sun-earth 13000 RE (actually 23400) |
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-1st C |
Caesar planned complete survey of empire. Responsible for Roman roads and aquaducts in Italy, France, Germany etc. |
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-1st C |
Posidonius gave meridian quadrant as 11000 km |
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-100 |
Egypt. Edfu temple has erroneous inscription on area of quadrilateral. |
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-90 |
Historical record of Chinese astronomy written by Ssuma Chhien. |
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-60 |
Nero’s engineers began Corinth canal. Abandoned for fear of diff in levels |
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-52 |
Chinese permanently fixed equatorial ring on armillary. |
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-50 |
Large clepsydra in Tower of Winds, Athens |
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-46 |
Calendar troubles. Last year before commencement of Julian calendar |
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lasted 445 days. Sosigenes prepared new work. |
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-15 |
Vitruvius reported on automatic timepiece- Horologium anaphoricum- had astrolabe disc with a net of projected parallels and meridians. Water driven. |
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+4 |
Boundary line in Wurttemberg 80 km long.Resurveyed 1911. Out of |
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alignment by 2 m in 29 km. |
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+5 |
China. Chia Liang Hu by Liu Hsin, a model to define standard measures. |
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pre +7 |
Balbus constructed right angle with aid of a semi-circle. |
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18 |
Roman wall map |
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32 |
Relief maps modelled in rice. |
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60 |
Apostle Paul report on sounding lines |
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69 |
Diviner’s board with compass indications, symbolic rep. of heaven and earth. |
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80 |
Wang Chhung discussed dependence of sea tides on moon. |
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83 |
China. First self-registering direction finder. |
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84 |
China. Ecliptic armillary ring. |
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89 |
Chia Khuei, precise definition of ecliptic. |
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1st C |
Fort Caburn, Sussex set out with Sumerian ft of 20 shusi as standard. |
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1st C |
Cinerarium in Vatican Gardens portrayed in relief the Roman ft measure. |
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1st C |
Difference between Greek and Chinese mathematics |
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1st C |
Geocentric system of planets. |
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100 |
Chang Heng scientific cartography in China used rectangular grid. |
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100 |
Menelaos wrote Spherics containing the sine function. |
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100 |
China. South pointing carriage. |
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100 |
Heron’s De Speculis on mirrors and angle of reflection. |
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105 |
Mechanical process of paper making from plant fibres. |
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107 |
South pointers frequently mentioned – lodestone; wet and dry models |
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120 |
Ptolemy insisted maps to be based on astro. obs. Longitude in terms of time coords. and not guesses. Lats by transits of circumpolar stars. |
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120 |
Chinese Pan Ku and Pan Chao used coordinate system |
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125 |
Horizon and meridian rings added to Chinese armilleries. |
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130 |
Chinese star catalogue of 2500 stars + 11250 smaaler ones counted. |
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150 |
Ptolemaic chord tables. First mention of abacus by Hsu Yo. |
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164 |
Gnomon shadow template of jade |
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178 |
China. Calendar reform. Ideas on obliquity similar to Eratosthenes. |
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190 |
Shu Shu Chi-I mention of calendrical astronomy. |
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2nd C |
Anti-Kythera machine. Anaphoric clocks in Hellene. |
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200 |
China. Hydrographic record. Marine navigation. |
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200 |
China. Cosmology of infinite empty space. |
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230 |
Chao Ta, dial and pointer system for direction finding. |
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250 |
Indirect height measurement. |
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263 |
Chinese text on measuring heights and distances with poles bearing crossbars. |
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265? |
Precession of equinoxes by Yu Hsi (or 320?) |
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267 |
China. Levelling. Measuring curves and straights to reduce for slope. |
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275 |
Diophantus called negative numbers absurd. |
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3rd C |
Chinese calculus. Roman abacus. Celestial globe. |
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3rd C |
Ref. to crosswire grid. Length standards for small distances based on |
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diameter of silk thread = 1 hu. |
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330 |
Pytheus travelled Europe et al reporting on tides and other topics. |
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4th C |
Magnetic needles in China |
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4th C |
First Chinese star map. |
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400 |
Indians produced modern trigonometry as Paulisa Siddhanta. |
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445 |
Ho Chheng-Thien simultaneous obs. at Hanoi and Hue gave decrease in shadow with latitude of 3.56 in per 1000 li. |
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450 |
Chinese wood relief 10 ft square. |
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475 |
Indeterminate analysis in China. |
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480 |
Pi to 3.1415929203 by Tsu Chhung-Chih. Finite differences in astronomy. |
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5th C |
Marcellus and Pliny the Elder reported on repellant force of lodestone. |
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500 |
Li Tau-Nguan commented on hydrography in China in 40 volumes. |
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500 |
Chang Chiu-Chien noted survey problems using right angled triangles. |
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505 |
Varaha-Mihira used sines and c osines. |
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510 |
Aryabhata gave name sinus to that function. Tables x 1 degree |
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540 |
Cassiodoros reported on science of land surveying. |
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548 |
Multiplication tables by Li Nien. |
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570 |
Chinese computations by abacus. |
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6th C |
Arabs created terms zenith, nadir, azimuth. |
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6th C |
Arabs determined obliquity of the ecliptic. |
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600 |
Seismograph by Lin. |
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604 |
Liu Chhuo selected baselines in flat country along meridian through |
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Honan and Hopei to determine time by clepsydra and to set gnomons. |
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632 |
Astro. obs. tower in Korea about 30 ft high. Use a pin hole to determine |
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shadow length to 3 dec. places of a foot. |
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640 |
Arabs observed stars with 20 ft quadrant and 56 ft stone sextant at Abul Welfa. |
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Some obs. in connection with geodetic baselines. |
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646 |
China. Schools of surveying established. |
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Japanese emperor pordered production of cadastral maps. |
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7th C |
Codex Arcerianus (Irish) described survey practice and legal aspects. |
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7th C |
European churches oriented N. |
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7th C |
China. Magnetic declination discovered. |
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7th C |
Japanese used south indicator. |
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7th C |
Balance arm clepsydra at Antioch. |
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713 |
Mechanical clockwork in China. |
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713 |
to 800. Terrestrial civil unit fixed as 1/351 Chinese degree. |
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716 |
Original Arabian foot shown on column. The Nilometer. |
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718 |
Indian sine tables traslated into Chinese |
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721 |
to 725. Eleven Chinese obs. points on line through Hue (not on same meridian) |
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Hue 17.9ºN Weichow 40ºN. Diff. shadow lengths 4 in/ 1000 li. |
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723 |
Clockwork escapement invented in China. |
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725 |
I-Hsing. Armillary spheres with ecliptically mounted sighting tubes. |
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777 |
Al-Fazari under Al-Masur made first Arabic astrolabe. |
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Arabian plumb bob recorded at that time. |
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8th C |
Arabs used carpenter’s s quare (Kunija) larger than a groma. |
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8th C |
Significance of metric system recognised in China. |
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Attempts to define terrestrial units in terms of astro. or geodetic constants. |
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800 |
Windroses developed by Vikings. |
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800 |
Arabian manuscript on astrolabes. |
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820 |
Al-Kwarizmi developed Hindu number system and algebra. |
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Text on algebra in which the word was invented. |
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827 |
Arabs measured baselines near Baghdad. |
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840 |
Camera obscura in China. |
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850 |
Arabs mechanised papermaking. |
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850 |
Al-Battani added the shadow square to the astrolabe. |
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871 |
Alfred the Great determined inch as 3 grains of barley, dry, round. |
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9th C |
Arabs rejected earth rotation about own axis. |
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900 |
Ibn Jabir ibn Sinan al Baltani concept of tan and cotan. |
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950 |
Gerbert conveyed Muslim surveying knowledge to the West. |
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970 |
Abul-Wafa al-Buzjani concept of secant and cosecant. |
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975 |
King Edgar ordained 3 ft = 1 yard. |
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992 |
Decimal system for weight became official in China. |
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10th C |
Sighting tube reported in a codex of St Gallen monastery. |
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1000 |
Hamid Ibn al Khidr al-Khujandi sextant radius 57 ft. |
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1080 |
Chinese maps, reasonably accurate, at 1:31 680 |
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1086 |
Shen Kua, enguineer and surveyor, determined lengths of arcs and |
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produced tables on chords and arcs. Arc = chord + S.S/R (S= mid ordinate. He also set out canals, slopes, levelling dams etc by water level. |
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1090 |
Su Sung’s astronomical clock tower 35 ft high. Powerdriven globe and |
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armillary sphere. Latter had a sighting tube. |
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11th C |
Arabs, decimal fractions from Indians, transmission to Jewish and |
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Latin scholars in 12th C. |
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11th C |
Length of year known to Mayas Incas and Indians as 365.2420 |
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1103 |
Chinese sighting tube for altitude. |
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1114 |
Indian horizontal staff described by Bhaskara. Used by Muslims to measure depth of wells. |
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1120 |
Henry I, statute on standard yard. Hexagonal brass yard. |
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1137 |
Two Chinese maps carved in stone had grid to scale of 100 li. |
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1150 |
Jabir ibn Aflah probable inventor of Torquetum. |
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Recording of star altitudes by finger width of outstretched arm. |
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1155 |
First printed Chinese map |
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1159 |
Arab cylindrical sundial |
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1180 |
Alexander Neckam described magnetic needle in De naturis rerum. |
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1198 |
Chinese Astronomer Royal severely punished for wrongly predicting solar eclipse by ½ day. |
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12th C |
China. Timekeeping by metal incense clock, burning point of powder |
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winding through labyrinth of characters. |
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12th C |
Determination of diameter and circumference of a circular walled city from afar. |
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1200 |
Venetian glass makers developed art of lens making. |
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1205 |
Seven day week introduced in China. |
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1220 |
Fibonacci analytical geometry in Europe. |
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1229 |
Translation of Arab writings on astronomy. |
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1232 |
Floating compass needle used in Persia. |
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1247 |
Chinese planisphere engraved in stone. |
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1250 |
Alfonsine tables of planets |
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1258 |
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi first Director of Observatory at Maragha. |
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Al-Tusi 12 ft wooden mural quadrant with sights, copper limb to degrees. |
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1269 |
Peregrinus described azimuthal dial with alidade and compass. |
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1274 |
Zero number in Chinese computations. |
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1276 |
Chinese gnomon 40 ft high in brick tower at Yang-chheng, 120 ft shadow scale and waterchannel for level control. |
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1276 |
Torquetum by Kuo-Shou-Ching in Peking. |
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1279 |
Kuo Shou-Ching’s observatory at Peking. |
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1285 |
Spina and Armati invented spectacles. |
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13th C |
Bacon studied properties of mirrors and plano convex lenses. |
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13th C |
Al-Urdi al-Dimashqi improved ancient Indian circles method for Azimuth fixes. |
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13th C |
al-Marrekushi’s 134 geog coords froim astrofixes. |
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13th C |
Bowl compass in Chinese waters for navigation. |
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13th C |
Seismograph at Maraghah Observatory |
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13th C |
to 17th C England. Open field system. Unit length, reach of a barge pole. |
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13th C |
Jacob staff by Levi ben Gershon. |
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13th C |
Decimal point by Yang Hui. |
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1300 |
Chu Ssu-Pen atlas of China. |
|||||

1305 |
Edward I, unit of length 1 inch of 3 grains of barley. |
|||||

1306 |
Grid map of Palestine. by Sanuto. |
|||||

1311 |
Portolan charts with rectangular grids by Pietro. |
|||||

1335 |
Gough map of England with 3 different miles- 2230 yard in England; 2250 yard in Wales;’ 2800 yard in Cheshire. |
|||||

1350 |
Gough’s Itinerary map of Gt Britain. |
|||||

Relief map of Gibraltar by Ibn Battutah |
||||||

1370 |
Oresme used terms longitudo, latitudo. |
|||||

14th C |
Chinese road alignments by compass. |
|||||

14th C |
First European mechanical astronomical clocks. |
|||||

1416 |
Henry the Navigator founded School of Navigation in Sagres. |
|||||

1421 |
Polish topographical map. |
|||||

1437 |
Ulug Beg Star Almanac. Had quadrant 180 ft high for star obs. |
|||||

1440 |
Gutenberg invented letterpress. Maps mainly cut in wood. |
|||||

1462 |
Sea quadrant by de Cintra. |
|||||

1471 |
Diaz rounded Cape of Good Hope. |
|||||

1472 |
Ivan the Terrible established unique library under the Kremlin. |
|||||

1473 |
Zacuto published perpetual almanac in Hebrew. |
|||||

1477 |
Intaglio printing by Durer. |
|||||

1492 |
Behaim’s Nurnberg globe with prime meridian 2º W of Canary Is. |
|||||

1493 |
Pope Alexander VI divided map of world in two by meridian in mid Atlantic. |
|||||

1493 |
Columbus discovered discrepancy between Flemish and Italian compasses. |
|||||

1496 |
Bronze rod yard standard in Britain. |
|||||

1497 |
Vasco da Gama sailed to India. |
|||||

15th C |
Purbach geometric square . Tables of sines and tangents. |
|||||

15th C |
de Cusa supported heliocentric theory and diurnal rotation of earth. |
|||||

15th C |
L da Vinci – Visible masses on the earth’s surface are in equilibrium. |
|||||

1500 |
Organum viatorum. Pocket size combination of compass + sundial |
|||||

1507 |
Copernicus wrote De revolutionibus orbium coelestium. |
|||||

1508 |
Portable clock in Europe |
|||||

1512 |
Waldseemuller’s polimetrum for bearings and altitudes. |
|||||

1512 |
Evidence of nautical cartography in Java |
|||||

1513 |
Piri Rei of Turkey, sea chart of Atlantic with American Coast. |
|||||

1523 |
Fitzherbert. First book on surveying; Boke of Surveyinge. |
|||||

1524 |
Tartaglia box compass with altitude on circular graduated board. |
|||||

1525 |
French topographical maps by Fine and Coline |
|||||

1525 |
Russian topographic maps made by invited foreigners. |
|||||

1525 |
Guillen combined gnomon and compass for variations in magnetic declination. |
|||||

1525 |
Fernel measured distance Paris-Amiens by carriage wheel. |
|||||

1528 |
Topographic maps in Russia and Poland by Wapowski. |
|||||

1530 |
Term chronometer suggested by Frisius. |
|||||

1530 |
Agricola wrote De re metallica on mine surveying |
|||||

1530 |
Arsenius added a compass to an astrolabe. |
|||||

1533 |
Frisius wrote on triangulation. |
|||||

1534 |
Frisius portable equatorial armillary sphere. |
|||||

1537 |
de Benese wrote The Boke of Measuringe Lande. |
|||||

Distance by wooden rod of 1 perch = 5½ yards long. |
||||||

1537 |
Nunez designed the nonius for reading quadrants. |
|||||

1540 |
Quality woodcut map of Bavaria by Apian. |
|||||

1541 |
Box compass by Neudorfer |
|||||

1542 |
Differential quadrant by Rotz for navigation. Simul: det: lat and Az. |
|||||

1542 |
Hartmann discovered inclination of magnetic needle. |
|||||

1545 |
Marine Jacob’s staff by de Medina |
|||||

1546 |
Tartaglia reported on survey methods in Italy. |
|||||

1546 |
Brahe designed 19 ft quadrant for his Danish observatory. |
|||||

1546 |
Mercator recognised existence of magnetic poles. |
|||||

1547 |
Ryff improvement of theodolite |
|||||

1550 |
De Roja’s book on astrolabium published. |
|||||

1551 |
Foulon with plane table plus holometre. |
|||||

1551 |
Munster designed trigonus- three straight rods in triangle vide triquetum |
|||||

1554 |
Mohit used Jacob staff with various sliding plates for star altitudes. |
|||||

1556 |
King Akbar decreed 25 Indus inch = 1 gaz (= the Ilahi gaz or Akbar yard) |
|||||

1556 |
Digges Tectonicon |
|||||

1557 |
Modern = sign by Recorde |
|||||

1559 |
Cunningham described triangulation |
|||||

1564 |
Bartoli different design of polimetrum |
|||||

1569 |
Mercator true bearing chart for navigators. |
|||||

1569 |
Rheticus taught proper survey control for mapping. |
|||||

1570 |
World map by Ortelius |
|||||

1571 |
Theodolitus by Digges. Also the instrument topographicall |
|||||

1571 |
Torquetum by Regiomontanus |
|||||

1571 |
Kepler succeeded Brahe in Prague. |
|||||

1574 |
Gutmann wrote Felsmessen,gewiss.richtig und kurz gestellt. (On proper |
|||||

survey methods). |
||||||

1574 |
Reinhold similar book to Gutmann. Preferred a wire to hemp cord for distance. |
|||||

1579 |
Brahe connected Denmark and Sweden via Oresund. |
|||||

1579 |
Saxton’s English county maps with triangulation control |
|||||

1581 |
Galilei observed swinging chandelier |
|||||

1583 |
Ricci world map with flattened sphere projection. |
|||||

1585 |
Decimal arithmetic introduced by Stevin. |
|||||

1587 |
Sea charts by Mercator son Rumold. |
|||||

1588 |
Q Elizabeth I St. yard of 36 inch = 3 ft…….1760 yds to mile |
|||||

1590 |
First Italian telescope by Porta. |
|||||

1593 |
Chinese reel of measuring tape similar to modern |
|||||

1594 |
Hulsius elaborate quadrant with compass sundial |
|||||

1594 |
Praetorius ball and socket head for plane table tripod. |
|||||

1594 |
Errard de Bar-le-Duc telemetre |
|||||

1594 |
Werner’s Jakob staff 7 ft long with 2000 divisions for angle measure |
|||||

1595 |
Davis back staff for use at sea. |
|||||

1597 |
French astrolabe – graphometre by Danfrie. |
|||||

1598 |
de Subermille designed Henry metre- a combination of rods. |
|||||

1598 |
Pfintzing surveyors carriage with dial recording hodometer |
|||||

16th C |
Hommel (1518-1562) Leipzig, promoted surveying. |
|||||

16th C |
Seven European astro instruments with 360º divs. reached China via Persia. |
|||||

16th C |
Leonard and Thomas Digges experimented with telescope making. |
|||||

1600 |
Decimal division. 1 chain = 100 links |
|||||

Germany. Miner’s Lachter-Kette or brass chain was 8-12 m long. |
||||||

1600 |
X sign introduced by Viete |
|||||

1600 |
Pitiscus published his Trigonometriae |
|||||

1600 |
Clavius wrote Operum Mathematicorum. |
|||||

1605 |
Topographic map of Japan. |
|||||

1606 |
Snellius described compass declination of 11º 15′ |
|||||

1607 |
First 6 of the 15 books of Euclid translated into Chinese by Ricci. |
|||||

1607 |
Logarithms by Burgi. |
|||||

1608 |
Dutch trunks (telescopes) by Lippershey. |
|||||

1609 |
First two of Kepler’s Laws published. |
|||||

1610 |
Kepler’s astronomical telescope for surveyors. Huygens refined lens making. |
|||||

1610 |
Galilei observed Jupiter with 30X telescope. His sector for computations. |
|||||

1610 |
French toise marked by iron rod in foot of stairs of Le Chatelet. |
|||||

1612 |
Word telescope used by Lagalla but ascribed to Demisiani |
|||||

1612 |
Harriot went as surveyor to Virginia. |
|||||

1612 |
Scheiner’s helioscope. |
|||||

1612 |
Dou’s Holland circle made in Amsterdam. It had a cross swivel joint tripod. |
|||||

1612 |
Word telescope used by Lagalla. |
|||||

1614 |
Napier’s addit. logs and natural functions. |
|||||

1615 |
Snellius introduced base extension and resection into triangulation. |
|||||

Used large 4 or 5 ft diam copper quadrant with transversal to 1′. |
||||||

1615 |
Kepler’s Doliometria described vol. calculations by prismoidal rule. |
|||||

1615 |
Dias in China mentioned telescope in his Explanation of the Celestial Sphere. |
|||||

1616 |
Rathborne’s The Surveyor. Described theodelite, playne table, circumferentor. |
|||||

1617 |
Napier’s bones. |
|||||

1618 |
First telescope arrived in China. |
|||||

1619 |
Third law of Kepler published. |
|||||

1620 |
Introduction of slide rule |
|||||

1621 |
Snellius’ sine law of refraction |
|||||

1622 |
Oughtred invented straight log. slide rule. |
|||||

1624 |
Briggs logs to base 10 |
|||||

1624 |
Log slide rule by Gunter |
|||||

1624 |
Gunter’s Description and Use of the Sector… published. |
|||||

1626 |
Chinese book on telescopes. |
|||||

1627 |
Wingate’s straight edge slide rule. Two scales. |
|||||

1630 |
Bleau alleged to have measured base between Maas and Texel. |
|||||

1630 |
Algebraic geometry by Gethaldi. |
|||||

1631 |
Vernier designed. |
|||||

1632 |
Oughtred described a circular slide rule. |
|||||

1633 |
Norwood’s measure London to York by chain. What else? |
|||||

1636 |
Mersenne’s reflecting telescope. |
|||||

1637 |
Descartes work on lenses. |
|||||

1637 |
Descartes cartesian analytical geometry and integral exponents. |
|||||

1638 |
Telescopes fitted with cross hairs of silk by Gascoigne. |
|||||

1639 |
Gascoigne’s movable hair in telescope. Hence gradienter method. |
|||||

1640 |
Gascoigne’s knife edge eyepiece micrometer. |
|||||

1640 |
Adding machine suggested by Ciermans. (Scierman) |
|||||

1640 |
Theory of numbers and analytical geometry by Fermat. |
|||||

1640 |
Leibniz coined terms abscissa and ordinata. |
|||||

1642 |
Pascal’s adding machine. |
|||||

1642 |
Torricelli had idea of mercury barometer |
|||||

1643 |
Viviani experimented on making a vacuum. |
|||||

1644 |
Mersenne observed free fall acc due to gravity by pendulum |
|||||

1645 |
Riccioli & Grimaldi arc measure Mt Serra-Paderno-Modena. Unreliable. |
|||||

1647 |
Hevelius’ 150 ft long telescope. Pub. Selenographia and Machinae coelestis |
|||||

1648 |
Pascal’s Lunar tables. |
|||||

1648 |
Pascal taught use of barometer for height difference with Torricelli barometer |
|||||

1650 |
Divini and Campani made long focus object glasses. |
|||||

1650 |
De La Hire suggested engraving cross hairs by diamond. |
|||||

1650 |
Gilbert considered earth as a large magnet. |
|||||

1650 |
First use of logs in China. |
|||||

1650 |
Partridge modern slide rule with movable centrepiece. |
|||||

1653 |
Improvement of level by Strumienski of Cracow |
|||||

1653 |
Claramontius improved level. |
|||||

1653 |
Leybourn published his The Compleat Surveyor. Went to 5 Edns by 1722 |
|||||

1654 |
Barometric measures demonstrated to the Regensburg Reichstag. |
|||||

1654 |
Jakob Bernouilli started his work on catenary, loxodrome, spirals etc |
|||||

1657 |
Huygens grandfather clock. |
|||||

1658 |
Atwell published his The Faithful Surveyor. |
|||||

1658 |
Hooke’s spiral spring for pocket watches. |
|||||

1659 |
Huygens and Hooke micrometer designs. Intro of virgula = tapered metal bar and hair micrometer |
|||||

1660 |
Italian level with floating gunsights by Schoff |
|||||

1660 |
Division sign introduced |
|||||

1660 |
Tilas of Sweden- mining compass |
|||||

1660 |
Picard – semi-automatic levels. One with telescope and water level container other with plumb bob forcing telescope into horizontal position. |
|||||

1660 |
Chinese obtained slide rule from Europe. |
|||||

1660 |
Mouton suggested an unalterable universal measure for the metre. |
|||||

1661 |
Thevonet invented spirit bubble. |
|||||

1662 |
Van Breen (Holland) improved nautical staff with coloured observer’s glass |
|||||

1662 |
Reticule micrometer with several silver wires by Malvasia. |
|||||

1663 |
Gregory – two mirror combination for reflecting telescope proposed |
|||||

1665 |
Newton postulated earth as oblate spheroid. |
|||||

1666 |
Newton clarified distinction between spherical and chromatic aberration. |
|||||

1666 |
Foundation of Academie des Sciences, Paris. |
|||||

1666 |
Auzout filar micrometer. |
|||||

1667 |
Praetorius wrote on diving rods in Gazophylaci gaudium. |
|||||

1667 |
to 1670. Picard, Auzout and Romer established precision astronomy. |
|||||

1667 |
Godunov’s first map of Siberia |
|||||

1668 |
Hooke’s shortened telescope and lens grinding machine. |
|||||

1668 |
Newton’s reflecting telescope. |
|||||

1669 |
Riccioli and Picard observed free fall acc due to gravity by pendulum |
|||||

1669 |
Chains in use- Rathborne 1 perch = 100 links; Gunter 4 perches or poles = 100 links |
|||||

1669 |
Verbiest reequippoed Peking astronomical observatory. |
|||||

1669 |
to 70. Picard determined arc from Amiens to Malvoisin |
|||||

His quadrant used on arc was 10 ft radius with telescopic sights and cross hairs |
||||||

1670 |
and on. Newton and law of gravitation. |
|||||

1670 |
Differential calculus by Leibniz, Briggs, Napier and Newton |
|||||

1670 |
to 90. Observatories built in Paris, Greenwich and Berlin. |
|||||

1670 |
Hooke suggested clockwork driven telescope. |
|||||

1670 |
Mouton proposed a linear scale based on a geodetic minute. |
|||||

1671 |
Picard suggested a Universal Foot as function of sec pendulum |
|||||

1672 |
Cassegrain suggested reflecting telescope |
|||||

1672 |
to 1695. Leibniz Staffelwalzenmachine for multiplication and tens transmission |
|||||

1672 |
Richer in Cayenne observed parallax to Mars |
|||||

Noticed that his pendulum had to be shortened at Cayenne to keep time. |
||||||

1672 |
G D Cassini I determined distance earth-sun. |
|||||

1673 |
Hooke and Hevelius compared merits of gunsights with telescope pointing. |
|||||

1673 |
Loevenhoek showed great skill in lens grinding. |
|||||

1674 |
Montanari used stadia method for distance. |
|||||

1677 |
Foster in Boston USA First American map in woodcut. |
|||||

1677 |
Flamsteed equatorial sextant. Wrote Historia Coelestis. |
|||||

1682 |
Pendulum observations by Halley, Varin, Deshayes, de Glos and Goree. |
|||||

1683 |
Seki Kowa wrote on determinants. |
|||||

1683 |
Cassini I extended Picard’s arc north to Dunkirk |
|||||

1683 |
Cassini II wrote on barometric levelling. |
|||||

1684 |
Romer’s transit instrument at Copenhagen. |
|||||

1686 |
Halley deduced crude relation for pressure v height |
|||||

1686 |
to 1743 Maharajah Jai Sing set up over 40 astro. instruments in various cities. |
|||||

1687 |
Hooke suggested a Pole finding telescope with concentric circles. |
|||||

1687 |
Newton wrote Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica. |
|||||

1688 |
Chinese scholar gave details of ancient Chinese standards of length. |
|||||

1693 |
Leibniz wrote on determinants |
|||||

1697 |
Contour lines introduced by Ancelin, Rotterdam |
|||||

17 C |
Leybourn published method of closing traverses. |
|||||

17 C |
Beginning of modern Geodesy |
|||||

17 C |
Jesuits arrived in China.They had a cosmos of the closed Ptolemaic-Aristotelian geocentric universe of solid concentric crystalline spheres. This opposed the doctrine of the floating of heavenly bodies of Hsuan-Yeh. |
|||||

17 C |
Roman Catholic & Protestant clergy supplied “all round” geodesists to Europe. |
|||||

eg Cusa, Copernicus, Picard, Boscovich, Bohnenburger. |
||||||

1700 |
La Hire began extension of Picard arc to the south. |
|||||

It reached Colliure by 1716 or 18. gave prolate figure !! See entry p 46 |
||||||

1700 |
Halley’s charts of magnetic declination across continents and oceans. |
|||||

1700 |
Newton designed first octant. He wrote on ancient metrology. |
|||||

1702 |
Leibniz had idea of using elastic deformation of metal for pressure measure. |
|||||

1702 |
Antoine Thomas arc measure in China. See entry p 46 |
|||||

1702 |
Mallet described spirit levels. |
|||||

1704 |
Romer’s meridian circle. |
|||||

1704 |
Le Blon experimented on colour effects in printing. |
|||||

1705 |
Sherwin 7 figure log tables. |
|||||

1707 |
to 1717. Complete resurvey of China by Jesuits. |
|||||

1707 |
Euler started teaching in Basel, Petersburg and then Berlin. |
|||||

1708 |
to 12. Hooke and Flamsteed used van Breen’s ideas on the quadrant. |
|||||

1709 |
Bion described octagonal surveyor’s cross for 45º and 90º horz. angles. |
|||||

1710 |
Peter the Great (Russia) ordered linear scale (fuss) supposedly equivalent |
|||||

to ancient Chinese foot, to be made equal to English foot. |
||||||

1713 |
Bernouill binomial distribution. |
|||||

1714 |
Board of Longitude offered £20000 for solution to longitude. |
|||||

1720 |
Halley succeeded Flamsteed as Director Greenwich Observatory |
|||||

1720 |
Cassini proposed a geodetic ft = 1 terrestrial minute of arc |
|||||

1721 |
Hadley reflecting telescope 200X Mag 6 ft long |
|||||

1723 |
La Hire. Level instrument with floating gun sights. |
|||||

1724 |
Burgh (Dublin) used double meridian distance to compute areas. |
|||||

1725 |
New observatory in Japan. Accepted Copernican system. |
|||||

1726 |
Petersburg Acad.Sc.founded by Peter the Great. |
|||||

1727 |
Bradley aberration of stars idea conceived. |
|||||

1730 |
Sisson making theodolites with micrometers. |
|||||

1731 |
Godfrey’s sea quadrant. (USA) |
|||||

1732 |
Hadley’s octant reading to 1 min arc. |
|||||

1732 |
George Washington born |
|||||

1733 |
De Moivre’s normal distribution. |
|||||

1733 |
Herschel introduced reflecting telescope used in today’s 1″ theodolites. |
|||||

1733 |
Cassini began parallel arc measure St Malo to Strasbourg. |
|||||

1734 |
Publication of first Russian Atlas. |
|||||

1735 |
Start of Peru arc expedition. Used Toise de Perou. |
|||||

1735 |
La Condamine observed free fall acc due to gravity by pendulum |
|||||

1735 |
to 7 La Condamine, Godin and Bouguer found length equat: secs pendulum |
|||||

1735 |
Invariable pendulum by Mairan used by Maupertuis at Pello 1736 |
|||||

1735-42 |
French arc by Maupertuis in Lapland. See p 50 for details |
|||||

1736 |
Bouguer at foot of Chimborazo to experiment of deflection of vertical. |
|||||

1736 |
Six Roman linear standards on tablet in Rome measured by Folkes of Roy.Soc. |
|||||

1737 |
De L’isle measured base on ice Petersburg to Cronstadt. |
|||||

1737 |
Clairaut, Maclaurin proved Newton’s law of gravitation. |
|||||

1737 |
Clairaut proved Newton’s hypothesis of oblate earth. |
|||||

1737 |
Leigh – sextant with artificial fluid horizon |
|||||

1738 |
French Acad. announced that Cassini prolate earth had been rejected. |
|||||

1739 |
to 40. C F Cassini III, and Lacaille repeated earlier Cassini II arc measure. |
|||||

1739 |
to 40. Cassini and LaCaille resurveyed Picard arc and added 5 bases. |
|||||

1740 |
Age of scientific instrument makers began with Langlois |
|||||

1740 |
Celcius discovered short period variations of magnetic declinations. |
|||||

His temperature scale used. |
||||||

1742 |
Bradley succeeded Halley as Director Greenwich Observatory. |
|||||

1742 |
Roy.Soc.organised manufacture of Yard measure based on Elizabeth’s of 1588 |
|||||

1742 |
Results from Peru expedition- oblate earth. |
|||||

1743 |
Clairaut published Theorie de la Figure de la terre. See p 52 |
|||||

1743 |
pendulum. |
|||||

1744 |
Cassini de Thury IV began Carte topographique de la France |
|||||

1744 |
to 99. Triangulation linking Greenwich and Paris. |
|||||

1745 |
C F Cassini’s (III) transversal cylindrical projection. |
|||||

1747 |
Murdoch Mackenzie’s hydrographic surveys of Orkneys. |
|||||

1747 |
to 1803. Survey of British Isles. |
|||||

1747 |
La Condamine proposed length equatorial secs pendulum as standard. |
|||||

1748 |
Bradley described nutation. |
|||||

1749 |
Faye found free air reduction of g. |
|||||

1749 |
D’Alembert proved Bradley theory of precession |
|||||

1750 |
La Caille catalogued 10 000 stars at Capetown in two years. |
|||||

1750 |
to 69. Arc measure of Liesganig, Varasdin-Brno. |
|||||

1750 |
Meridian arc Rome – Rimini by Boscovich and Meyer. |
|||||

1750 |
Stuart and Revett measured Parthenon. |
|||||

1750 |
Chezy internal grinding of spirit level vials. |
|||||

1750 |
Naime, London. Manufacturing barometers, thermometers etc |
|||||

1750 |
Boscovich compensation theory of crustal masses. |
|||||

1751 |
to 1753. La Caille arc in S Africa. |
|||||

1757 |
Marine chart of English Channel by Buache (France) Or 1737. See R107p141 |
|||||

1758 |
Bird made a standard for Parliamentary committee |
|||||

1758 |
Cook charted St Lawrence river. |
|||||

1758 |
Breithaupt – hanging theodolite. |
|||||

1759 |
to 60. Beccaria arc in Piemont near Turin. |
|||||

1759 |
Chinese azimuth compass in gimbal mounting for use at sea. |
|||||

1761 |
Cassini III began parallel arc Brest to Vienna |
|||||

1762 |
Ramsden opened workshop in London. |
|||||

1763 |
Harrison and Leroy. First ship chronometer. |
|||||

1764 |
Brander theodolite maker. |
|||||

1764 |
Osterwald used a wooden bridge to support measuring rods on Bavarian base |
|||||

1764 |
to 68. Mason-Dixon arc measure. Wooden box-type rods |
|||||

1765 |
Meyer’s widow received payment for his lunar tables. |
|||||

1766 |
Louis XIV edict on Toise de Perou. |
|||||

1767 |
Bird wrote The Method of Dividing Astronomical Instruments. |
|||||

1767 |
Maskelyne- first nautical almanac |
|||||

1769 |
Transit of Venus. |
|||||

1770 |
to 83. Guinand (Swiss) worked on improving flint glass. |
|||||

1770 |
Mayer suggested to Ramsden using his dividing engine for full circles |
|||||

1770 |
Hahn (G) -first reliable and durable calculating machines, different sizes. |
|||||

1770 |
Mining Academies established Berlin, Pribram (CZ), Sopron (Hun), Petersburg |
|||||

1771 |
Watts stadia tacheometry |
|||||

1772 |
Lambert’s conic projection |
|||||

1772 |
Radcliffe observatory founded in Oxford. Since 1948 has been in S Africa |
|||||

1773 |
Adams artificial horizon for sextant. |
|||||

1774 |
Maskelyne and Hutton plummet method for g, Mt Schehallien. |
|||||

1774 |
Harrison finally got his reward for chronometer. |
|||||

1775 |
to 77. Ramsden constructed dividing engine. |
|||||

1775 |
Mining Acad. established in Clausthal inHasrz Mts. |
|||||

1775 |
to 83. Introduction of 4 screw theods in USA |
|||||

1778 |
Green inserted a micrometer in the eyepiece |
|||||

1780 |
French weavers used punch cards. Jacquard of Lyons |
|||||

1782 |
Troughton Bros took over Rowley old shop. |
|||||

1783 |
Muller calculator |
|||||

1783 |
Roy began triangulation in England. |
|||||

1784 |
Roy base on Hounslow Heath with glass rods. |
|||||

1784 |
Prony produced 17 vols of Tables du Cadastre with logs nat. figs to 14 decs. 1 – 200 000. Used centesimal angular division. |
|||||

1785 |
Theodolite by Ramsden |
|||||

1785 |
Boscovich observed free fall acc due to gravity by pendulum |
|||||

1785 |
Borda’s repeating circle with two telescopes. |
|||||

1785 |
Remeasure Hounslow base by Williams, Mudge andDalby. |
|||||

1785 |
Rittenhouse used spider webs as cross hairs |
|||||

1787 |
Ramsden made 3 ft diameter circle to 1 sec by micrometer. |
|||||

His direction theodolite |
||||||

1787 |
French instrument makers (Fortin etc) formed a corporation. |
|||||

1787 |
Channel crossing by triangulation. Roy, Cassini,Legendre and Mechain |
|||||

1787 |
Legendre’s solution of fundamental geodetic triangle computation |
|||||

1789 |
Sir John R Miller raised the decimal question in House of Commons. |
|||||

1790 |
400g to circle introduced in France, S Germany and Switzerland. |
|||||

1790 |
French repetition theodolite |
|||||

1790 |
Cary apprentice under Ramsden. |
|||||

1790 |
Metric committee in France. Borda, Condorcet,Lagrange, Laplace,Monge |
|||||

1790 |
Borda et al expressed planetary distances in earth radii; need for R value |
|||||

Suggested quadrant as 10 000 000 m |
||||||

1790 |
Barrow meridian arc lat 23º 18′ |
|||||

1790 |
Talleyrand proposed length of secs. pendulum as a unit of length. |
|||||

1791 |
Fr. Decimal Committee recommended 1/10M of quadrant as a metre. |
|||||

1791 |
Longitude and horary graphs for mariners. |
|||||

1791 |
Borda and Cassini IV pendulum obs at Paris Observatory. |
|||||

1791 |
First contour maps in France. |
|||||

1791 |
French baselines by 30 ft firwood rods. |
|||||

1791 |
to 99 Br Admiralty Hydrographer, Hurd, charted Bermuda. |
|||||

1791 |
OS of Great Britain founded. |
|||||

1792 |
Sawitch flattening from pendulum obs. |
|||||

1792 |
to 99 Delambre and Mechain arc in France as part solution to metre value. |
|||||

1792 |
22 September. French Republic established. |
|||||

1793 |
Third Report by Decimal Committee. 1 prov. m = 443.44 P Lines. |
|||||

1794 |
Vega, Nautical Almanac, also log. slide rule replacing Galilei sector. |
|||||

1795 |
Metric system legalised in France. |
|||||

1796 |
Czar Paul instituted the Dépot of Maps. |
|||||

1797 |
Dallabella,Lisbon, inverse square law of magnetic force. |
|||||

1798 |
Cavendish determined earth density. His torsion balance. |
|||||

1798 |
Napoleon’s officers discovered the nilometer on Elephant Is in the Nile. |
|||||

1798 |
Mechain & Delambre submitted their results. |
|||||

1799 |
Prototype legal metre in France. |
|||||

1799 |
Delambre published Methodes analytiques pour la determination ….meridien. |
|||||

18 C |
English scientists used French pied du roi of 144 Paris lines (=325 mm). |
|||||

18 C |
Horrebow-Talcott latitude method. |
|||||

c1800 |
Lehmann (1765-1811) put shape of hachures on a mathematical basis. |
|||||

1800 |
Munich becoming centre of continental instrument making. |
|||||

1800 |
Senefelder introduced flatbed on stone block and offset printing |
|||||

1801 |
Depot General de la Guerre began production of Carte de la Baviere. |
|||||

1801 |
Paris parallel arc begun. Strassburg-Munich. |
|||||

1801 |
Svanberg reobserved Lapland arc of Maupertuis. |
|||||

1802 |
Flinders hydrographic surveys of Gulf of Carpenteria. |
|||||

1802 |
Laplace proved Mayer correct (1765) and added term to moon latitude equation. |
|||||

Hence reversed process and found earth flattening. |
||||||

1802 |
to3 Laplace derivation of pressure-height relationship. |
|||||

1802 |
von Zach & von Muffling baseline for Thuringian triag. near Gotha. |
|||||

Terminal points as cannons set vertically. First used by Roy in 1791 |
||||||

1802 |
to 1822. Triangulation began in India. |
|||||

1804 |
Repetition theodolite by Reichenbach. |
|||||

1804 |
Sacharof and Robertson balloon ascent from St Petersburg. |
|||||

1804 |
Mechain proposed extension of French arc to Balearic Is. |
|||||

1804 |
Mechain died in despair at errors in astro. lat of Barcelona. See p 60 |
|||||

1804 |
to 1811. Lambton parallel arc through Madras |
|||||

1805 |
Legendre applied least squares to French arc of 1792. See p 60 |
|||||

1805 |
Senefelder invented zincography |
|||||

1806 |
Legendre- length of a geodesic. |
|||||

1806 |
to 08. Biot and Arago extended French arc to Formentera on Balearic Is. |
|||||

Arago wrote about it in his Historie de ma jeunesse. |
||||||

1806 |
Illig. In papermaking, replaced animal glue by resin or alum. |
|||||

1807 |
Hassler founded US Coast & Geodetic Survey. |
|||||

1807 |
Arago suggested use of sound to measure depths. |
|||||

1808 |
Gauss astrolabe. Simultaneous determination of lat. and long. |
|||||

1808 |
to 25. Biot, Mathieu, theory of mathematical pendulum. |
|||||

1810 |
Soldner replaced plane rect. coords. by spherical rect. coords. |
|||||

1810 |
Senefelder invented transfer printing. |
|||||

1810 |
Review of French arc measures revealed short comings. |
|||||

Napoleon refused permission to re survey Lapland arc. |
||||||

1811 |
Mechanical press by Konig. |
|||||

1811 |
Laplace induced French to survey parallel arc of Marennes to Fiume (Istria) |
|||||

Interrupted by war of 1813-14. |
||||||

1811 |
Bohnenberger suggested an inverted (reversible) pendulum |
|||||

1812 |
French troops noticed an English built transit in Moscow and saved it |
|||||

from the big fire lit by Russians in self defence. |
||||||

1812 |
Pond catalogue of polar distances of 43 stars. |
|||||

1814 |
Stern calculator |
|||||

1814 |
First survey ships on British Navy list |
|||||

1814 |
Planimeter by Herman. |
|||||

1815 |
Triangulation in Italy. |
|||||

1816 |
Start of Struve triangulation. |
|||||

1816 |
to 17. First US baseline by Hassler at Tinively Valley. |
|||||

Second base on Long Island. |
||||||

1817 |
Struve initiated his meridian arc |
|||||

1817 |
Kater reversible pendulum. Suggested by Prony 1792 & Bohnenberger 1811 |
|||||

1818 |
Laplace published Theorie analytique des probabilités |
|||||

1818 |
Brousseaud & Nicollet observed Brest to Strasbourg on parallel of Paris. |
|||||

1819 |
Bohnenberger gyroscopic theory and construction of his precession machine. |
|||||

1819 |
Young’s modulus of elasticity |
|||||

1820 |
Fraunhofer engraved cross hairs by diamond. |
|||||

1820 |
Thomas (F) Arithmometer |
|||||

1820 |
Struve baseline near Dorpat. |
|||||

1820 |
Schumacher baseline in Holstein |
|||||

1820 |
Gauss used heliotrope on Hanover arc. |
|||||

1820 |
to 24; and 1838-53. Complete triangulation of Great Britain. |
|||||

1820 |
Topographic survey began in Russia under Schubert |
|||||

1821 |
Carline and Plana recomputed Beccaria’s arc. |
|||||

1821 |
Carlini deflection of plumb line at Mt Cenis |
|||||

1821 |
Gauss triangulation and arc measure adjusted by least squares. |
|||||

1821 |
to 22. Carlini and Plana filled gap between Alps and Turin in arc of Marennes. |
|||||

Rockets or powder signals for simult. obs. for longitudes. |
||||||

1822 |
Babbage Difference machine. |
|||||

1822 |
Fitzroy on Beagle in Sydney to determine longitude of Parramatta Obsy. |
|||||

1822 |
Parramatta observatory established by Sir Thomas Brisbane. |
|||||

1822 |
Memphis cubit rod (pre Rameses I) found at Jomar. |
|||||

1823 |
Bonne baseline at Brest for parallel arc |
|||||

1823 |
to 28. 30 000 miles of African coast charted by Owen. |
|||||

1824 |
First standard yard reached Sydney |
|||||

1825 |
Bessel refined Kater pendulum |
|||||

1825 |
Parallel arc Munich to Budapest |
|||||

1825 |
India confirmed the 1556 Akbar yard of 33 E Inch = 25 Indus inch |
|||||

= the Indian yard. |
||||||

1826 |
OS of Ireland begun by Colby. |
|||||

1826 |
Drummond invented heliostat and limelight. |
|||||

1826 |
Troughton and Simms partnership in instrument making. |
|||||

1826 |
Niepce photoengraving = photo intaglio |
|||||

1826 |
Oldendorps planimeter |
|||||

1827 |
Colby surveys |
|||||

1827 |
Babinet suggested light wave as natural unit of length |
|||||

1827 |
math. figure of earth in terms of geometric measurements. |
|||||

1828 |
Schmidt compuation of Hannover triangulation. To Gauss instructions. |
|||||

1828 |
Bohnenberger used spherical coordinates. |
|||||

1828 |
to 32. Map of nineteen counties by Thomas Mitchell, Australia |
|||||

1828 |
Ramsden 10 ft rod arrived in Sydney to standardise chains. |
|||||

1829 |
Cooke began instrument making career |
|||||

1829 |
Russian triangulation connected to Konigsberg observatory. Hence parallel arc England-France-Prussia-Russia. |
|||||

1830 |
Prussia took lead in geodesy from S Germany. |
|||||

Foundation of Trigonometrische Abteilung des Preuss. |
||||||

1831 |
to 41. Bessel triangulation in E Prussia. |
|||||

1832 |
to 33. Henderson further meridian arc obs. CapeTown. |
|||||

Related computations by Olufsen, Breen and Stone. |
||||||

1832 |
Everest baseline at Calcutta using Colby apparatus. |
|||||

1832 |
Hengler horizontal pendulum for deflection of plumbline. |
|||||

1833 |
Poisson work on seismic waves. |
|||||

1833 |
Stokes formula for distance between geoid and spheroid. |
|||||

1834 |
Jacobi triaxial ellipsoid. Followed by Clarke and Schubert. |
|||||

1834 |
Baeyer and Bessel on Prussian oblique arc. Base at Trenk |
|||||

1834 |
to 48. Babbage analytical engine. |
|||||

1835 |
Gauss and Weber fundamental study of geomagnetism |
|||||

1836 |
Mayer idea tpo determine eccentricty of ellipsoid by triang. of skew meridian |
|||||

1837 |
Poisson distribution. See p 48 for other names. |
|||||

1838 |
First astronomical observatory in USA at Williamstown. |
|||||

1839 |
Daguerre-Niepce reproduction of pictures by photographic emulsion. |
|||||

1839 |
Bessel toise. |
|||||

1840 |
Bessel spheroidal formulae |
|||||

1840 |
Blondat rubber hose over 50 m for hydrostatic levelling |
|||||

1840 |
Weisbach triangle in mine surveying |
|||||

1840 |
Everest theodolite, Indian subtense bar. |
|||||

1840 |
Precise traversing heads for mine survey by Breithaupt Kassel |
|||||

1840 |
to 80. S Australian triangulation included 7 bases. see Frome on Surveying. |
|||||

1841 |
Talbot developed photographic negative |
|||||

1841 |
Puissant discovered error of 68t in distance Formentera-Montjouy |
|||||

1841 |
to 78. Great Lakes triangulation USA suffered from bad base. (Sacle) |
|||||

1841 |
Everest base at Bidar by Colby bars. |
|||||

1842 |
J F Herschel discovered method of sun printing in blue |
|||||

1842 |
Ertel level with stadia hairs and horizontal circle |
|||||

1843 |
Chesterman cloth tape reinforced by wire. |
|||||

1843 |
Sumner, USA used position lines |
|||||

1844 |
Struve obtained permission to extend his arc to Tornea |
|||||

1844 |
Belgian triangulation using broken ray technique. |
|||||

1844 |
Chambers log tables |
|||||

1845 |
Staffel of Warsaw. Calculator |
|||||

1845 |
Stampfer discussed precision of pointing in relation to target shape |
|||||

1846 |
to1902. USCGS arc measures |
|||||

1847 |
to 56. Parallel arc Astrachan-Kishinev |
|||||

1848 |
to 56. Brest-Tchernowitz parallel arc observed. Extended to 20º by Wrochenko. |
|||||

1848 |
Many Laplace stns around Moscow by Schweizer. |
|||||

1848 |
Maclear remeasure of La Caille arc in S Africa. |
|||||

1848 |
Roche density of the earth |
|||||

1849 |
Maurel & Jayet (F) calculator |
|||||

1849 |
Kellner compound eyepiece. |
|||||

1849 |
Stokes on variation of gravity at surface of earth |
|||||

1849 |
Laussedat architectural photographs for measurements. |
|||||

1850 |
Vidie, Bourdon and Schinz independently invented metal capsule barometer |
|||||

1850 |
Foucault pendulum used to prove rotation of earth. |
|||||

1850 |
Reichenbach perfected his stadia hair method |
|||||

1850 |
-51. Le Gray and Archer. Photographic plates |
|||||

1851 |
Airy transit circle installed at Greenwich |
|||||

1852 |
Struve arc extended by Tenner towards Murmansk and Danube estuary. |
|||||

1852 |
Stampfer optical plumbing in mines. |
|||||

1853 |
Oppert found Assyrian ft standard at Babylon to be 329 mm for 30 shusi |
|||||

1853 |
Porro anallactic lens |
|||||

1853 |
-58. Porro, Koppe & Meydenbaur developed principles of photogrammetry. |
|||||

1854 |
Amsler polar planimeter |
|||||

1854 |
Airyu flotation theory of earth crust. |
|||||

1855 |
Alum lithoplates by Poitevin |
|||||

1855 |
Balloon photography in Paris by Nadar alias Tournachon |
|||||

and in Boston, USA and Solferino, Italy |
||||||

1855 |
Pratt observed deflection of plumbline in Himalayas. |
|||||

1855 |
Levelling used to determine settlement for first time. Near Stuttgart. |
|||||

1856 |
Stokes theory of physical pendulum |
|||||

1857 |
Parallel arc from Valencia (Eire) to Orsk suggested by Struve |
|||||

1858 |
Error or standard ellipse by Andrae. |
|||||

1858 |
Anaglyphic stereoscopic viewing by d’Almada |
|||||

1858 |
-59. Bertaud objective + Brunner camera box + theodolite for contours by photo. |
|||||

1859 |
to 77.Spanish triangulation. Connected to N Africa at Laghouat, Algiers |
|||||

1859 |
Schubert computed tri-axial ellipsoid |
|||||

1859 |
Eckholdt omnimeter measured a tangent ratio by screw. |
|||||

1859 |
Amsler reversible level. |
|||||

1860 |
Hayford clarified concepts of isostasy. |
|||||

1860 |
Triangulation England-France. Clarke computed arc and again in 1866 and 1880 |
|||||

1860 |
Base in Victoria, Australia 5½ miles long. Took 9 months |
|||||

1860 |
in 1876-7. On to Tunisia in 1884-5 |
|||||

1860 |
-80. Andrae, Sonderhof & Helmert discussed lateral refraction. |
|||||

1860 |
Sir Wm Thompson (Lord Kelvin) pressure tube for water depths. |
|||||

1861 |
Bessel ideas on reversible pendulum constructed by Lohmeier of Hamburg. |
|||||

1861 |
Norwegian geodetic commission formed |
|||||

1861 |
Gen Baeyer plan of international cooperation in geodesy. Became IUGG |
|||||

1861 |
-72. Central European parallel arc from Haverford to Orsk. |
|||||

1861 |
Third connection England-France. Others 1787 and 1822 |
|||||

1863 |
Kelvin theory of tides of earth crust. |
|||||

1863 |
Hoskold put plane mirror in front of theodolite for optical plumbing. |
|||||

1864 |
First meeting of IUGG |
|||||

1864 |
Baselines at terminals of Norwegian Trig. Christiana and Rinderleret. |
|||||

1865 |
Italian geodetic commission formed. |
|||||

1865 |
Precise levelling in Saxony by Nagel and Prussia and Bavaria in 1867 |
|||||

1865 |
Pujo fundamentals of photogrammetry |
|||||

1866 |
Villarceau general formula of Laplace equation. |
|||||

1866 |
Clarke computed triaxial ellipsoid |
|||||

1866 |
Hydrographic Office of U S Navy formed. |
|||||

1866 |
Von Wullerstorf idea of aneroid for relative gravimetry. |
|||||

1867 |
Spain, Portugal and Russia join IUGG |
|||||

1867 |
Precise levelling with Breithaupt instruments in Berlin. |
|||||

1868 |
New S Wales. Baselines at Lake George and Richmond. |
|||||

1868 |
Helmert worked on error ellipse |
|||||

1868 |
Villarceau and Bruns computations of geoid. |
|||||

1868 |
Creation of Prussian Geodetic Institute in Berlin. |
|||||

1869 |
Zollner horizontal pendulum |
|||||

1869 |
-70. Viertel, theodolite + eccentric telescope set vertical by autocollimation. |
|||||

1870 |
Helmert became Director of Zentral Bureau der Int. Erdmessung in Berlin. |
|||||

1870 |
Gauss five figure log tables. |
|||||

1870 |
-88. Revision of French arc Perpignan-Melun. Used Brunner theodolites. |
|||||

1871 |
Maddox photogelatine printing, dry plates. |
|||||

1871 |
Jordan optical plummet by refracting line of sight from 45 deg. mirror. |
|||||

1871 |
Brunner baseline equipment for European work |
|||||

1871 |
-98. Arc measure on 39th parallel in USA from Atlantic to Pacific |
|||||

Ten baselines |
||||||

1871 |
Thin, 66 ft, tape of crinoline steel introduced in Australia. |
|||||

1872 |
Barrel type calculating machine with toothed wheel. By Baldwin, USA |
|||||

1872 |
Schreiber test of circle graduations |
|||||

1873 |
Nagel designed and constructed theodolite for optical plumbing. |
|||||

1873 |
Jordan, Finsterwalder mapping from photographs. |
|||||

1873 |
Colour photography by Vogel, Clark Ducos du Hauron. After idea by Maxwell 1857 |
|||||

1873 |
Listing introduced tem Geoid |
|||||

1873 |
Todhunter book on History of Theory… published. |
|||||

1873 |
10 Laplace stations in Harz mountains. |
|||||

1874 |
Transit of Venus in NSW |
|||||

1874 |
Hansen testing line scales. |
|||||

1874 |
New International metre standard deposited at Paris. |
|||||

1875 |
Marc St Hilaire dead reckoning for position lines. |
|||||

1875 |
18 countries sign Treaty in Paris to establish Int.Bur.of Wts and Measures |
|||||

1875 |
Helmert method of accuracy of graduation of horizontal circles. |
|||||

1875 |
Peirce, USA determined vibration (or flexure) of pendulum support. |
|||||

1876 |
Algiers parallel reached Kap Bon and Sicily |
|||||

1876 |
Helmert defined line of sight in telescopes |
|||||

1876 |
Zacharie (Denmark) rectangular spherical computations. |
|||||

1876 |
Lord Kelvin harmonic analyser for tidal prediction. |
|||||

1877 |
Photogravure printing |
|||||

1878 |
Ohdner calculating machine. |
|||||

1878 |
Couturier reflection level with suspended telescope. |
|||||

1879 |
Ibanez and Perrier observed quad across Mediterranean to join French arc to N African parallel. |
|||||

1879 |
German level datum in Berlin connected to Amsterdam gauge. |
|||||

1879 |
Geoid map of Central Asia by Fergana |
|||||

1880 |
Nagel-Hildebrand optical plummet on interchangeable traverse heads. |
|||||

1880 |
Forster, Eggert, Broun, increase of visual acuity by coincidence method |
|||||

1880 |
Hollerith punch cards with electrical switch feeler |
|||||

1880 |
Von Sterneck pendulum with coincidence apparatus. |
|||||

1880 |
Term nomograph coined by D’Ocagne |
|||||

1880 |
Jaderin introduced new baseline technique with thin steel wires. |
|||||

1881 |
Mendenhall deflection of vertical at Mt Fujiyama |
|||||

1881 |
Offset printing by Champenois |
|||||

1882 |
Free swinging plumb bobs used in German shaft plumbing |
|||||

1883 |
Harmonic analysis of tides by G H Darwin and J C Adams |
|||||

1883 |
Longitude connection Singapore-Darwin-Sydney by Barrachi & Darwin |
|||||

1883 |
First geoid maps of Harz by Andrae |
|||||

1883 |
Fergola suggested Int. latitude service |
|||||

1883 |
-91. Queensland triangulation |
|||||

1884 |
Helmert dynamic correction |
|||||

1884 |
Great Britain joined Metric Convention |
|||||

1884 |
-90. Development of several types of camera including photo-theo.by Paganini |
|||||

1885 |
Algiers parallel reached Tunisia |
|||||

1885 |
Report from Berlin on 14 differing toise scales unsed in Europe Triangulation. |
|||||

1886 |
Scholz worked on error ellipse |
|||||

1887 |
Lallemand- orthometric correction |
|||||

1887 |
-92. Michelson and later Benoit determined number of red waves in cadmium |
|||||

in one metre. |
||||||

1888 |
Lorenzoni, Italy, determined vibration (or flexure) of pendulum support. |
|||||

1888 |
Penrose measured the Parthenon in Athens. |
|||||

1888 |
Introduction of terrestrial photogrammetry by Deville, Canada |
|||||

1888 |
-96. Eotvos torsion balance for gravity components |
|||||

1889 |
Bllee calculating machine |
|||||

1889 |
Austrian, French and German officers mapped Greece. |
|||||

1889 |
More countries join IUGG |
|||||

1889 |
Barr and Stroud glass wedge for optical distance measurement. |
|||||

1889 |
Dutton coined term isostasy |
|||||

1889 |
-93. Various experiments with horizontal pendulum |
|||||

1890 |
Rotogravure by Klie |
|||||

1890 |
Algraphy= aluminium sheet printing by Scholz, Mullaly and Bullock (1891). |
|||||

1890 |
Fennel, Kassel theodolite with in built optical plummet |
|||||

1890 |
-03. Precise levelling Kronstadt – Black Sea -Sea of Azov |
|||||

1890 |
-35. Triangulation Brest – Astrachan |
|||||

1890 |
De Grousilliers suggested to Zeiss idea of stereophotogrammetry |
|||||

1891 |
Chile, Peru covered with triangulation |
|||||

1892 |
Brunsvega twin desk calculator |
|||||

1892 |
French physicists introduce wavelength method to define the metre |
|||||

1892 |
Pulfrich constructed a rangefinder with floating mark (of Stolze) |
|||||

1892 |
-10. First geodetic levelling of Finland. |
|||||

1893 |
Three colour process by Kurtz |
|||||

1893 |
-98. Diagram tacheometer by Poncagli, Urbani and Hammer. Italy. |
|||||

1894 |
Double image optical distance measurement. Richards USA |
|||||

1894 |
Guilleaume suggested use of hypsometer with mercury barometer for g at sea |
|||||

1895 |
First stereo plotter by Machand, Deville in Canada |
|||||

1895 |
Relief printing mechanical press |
|||||

1896 |
Guilleaume developed invar for survey tapes. |
|||||

1896 |
Finsterwalder and Hugerhoff phototheodolite. |
|||||

1896 |
Geoidal profiles computed in Berlin |
|||||

1896 |
-03. Work of Scheimpflug on photogrammetry |
|||||

1896 |
-06. Helmert experiment on fluctuation of equipotential surface. |
|||||

1897 |
Russian Engineers used photos to locate railways near Chinese borders |
|||||

1897 |
Act of Parliament in GR to legalise metric system |
|||||

1898 |
Russian-Swedish expedition to Spitzbergen. Used Jaderin wires |
|||||

1898 |
Hildebrand optical plummet for nadir and zenith plumbing |
|||||

1898 |
-05. Four metre subtense bar used in German E Africa |
|||||

1899 |
Austrian Marine obs of refraction at sea horizon |
|||||

19 C |
Turkey mapped by Austrian Military surveyors |
|||||

19 C |
Bulgaria mapped by Russian officers |
|||||

c1900 |
1400 absolute gravity stations observed. Used to adjust Helmert formula |
|||||

1900 |
Kites with combined cameras used in Moscow by Thiele. |
|||||

1901 |
Geoid map of Switzerland by Messerschmitt |
|||||

1901 |
Stereocomparator by Abbe, Pulfrich and Zeiss. |
|||||

1902 |
Helmert work on spheroidal formulae |
|||||

1902 |
Invar staves used for precise levelling in Europe. |
|||||

1902 |
-06. Reobservation of Peru arc. See p 76. |
|||||

1902 |
-09. Hayford ellipsoid. Also topo.-isostatic reduction formula. |
|||||

1903 |
First geoid map of US East coast by USCGS |
|||||

1903 |
Double point resection by Finsterwalder |
|||||

1904 |
Albrecht test to determine long. diff. Potsdam-Brocken Mt by wireless |
|||||

in comparison with telegraphic transmission. |
||||||

1904 |
Absolute gravity observed at Dehra Dun |
|||||

1905 |
Rudski inversion method for reduction of masses above geoid |
|||||

1905 |
Wild theodolite with microscope for both verniers next to telescope |
|||||

1905 |
Bykow. Suggested level recording inst. using pendulum and rev. counter. |
|||||

1905 |
-54. Triangulation Cape to Cairo. ie 30th meridian |
|||||

1906 |
Photocomposing machine in lithography by Huebner |
|||||

1906 |
Helmert method to find earth axes from trig and gravity obs. |
|||||

1907 |
Stereoplotter by Thompson |
|||||

1907 |
Schweydar theory of coeff of rigidity of earth. |
|||||

1907 |
Wild.Coincidence setting of both verniers with microscope. |
|||||

1908 |
Stereo autograph by von Orel of Vienna. |
|||||

1908 |
Carl Zeiss Jena established geodetic instrument section |
|||||

1908 |
-11. Triangulation in Fiji by Lee, Rimmer, McCaw |
|||||

1909 |
Zeiss parallelogram by Bauersfeld |
|||||

1909 |
Prismastrolabium by vonClaude & Driencourt. |
|||||

1909 |
Pratt-Hayford isostatic system |
|||||

1910 |
Hayford investigated mean ellipsoid from gravity data |
|||||

1910 |
Zwicky tacheometer with two telescopes. |
|||||

1910 |
Photographic cross-sections of tunnel profiles in Austria |
|||||

1910 |
-13. Antarctic triangulation Ross Sea area by Debenham |
|||||

1911 |
Further 2736 absolute garvity stations. Helmert forula readjusted 1915 |
|||||

1911 |
Hammer method of adjusting trilateration. |
|||||

1911 |
Wilski double wire shaft plumbing. |
|||||

1911 |
Wild’s Zeiss III precision level with parallel plate micrometer. |
|||||

1912 |
Bowie working on isostasy |
|||||

1912 |
Foundation of International Time Bureau in Paris. (BIH). |
|||||

1912 |
Kruger method to transform conformal coords to adjacent zones |
|||||

1912 |
-13. Wegener found large vertical refraction in Greenland |
|||||

1912 |
-17. Bowie gravity obs in USA, Canada, India and Europe. |
|||||

1912 |
-21. Second geodetic levelling of Great Britain |
|||||

1913 |
Tardivo at Int. Cong. described aerial photog. from aeroplanes for mapping. |
|||||

1914 |
Haussmann suggested a gyrotheodolite |
|||||

1914 |
-18. Karolus, Mittelstadt & Huttel determined speed of light on geodetic base near Leipzig. |
|||||

1917 |
Bowie published “Investigations of gravity and isostasy. |
|||||

1919 |
IUGG formed. Germany only joined in 1956 |
|||||

1920 |
Karolus constructed modern Kerr cell as used in geodimeter. |
|||||

1921 |
Astrolabe attachment for theodolite by Reeves. |
|||||

1921 |
Stein found evidence of Indus inch inGobi desert. |
|||||

1921 |
Wild founded own workshop in Heerbrugg |
|||||

1922 |
Anschutz constructed first gyrotheodolite. |
|||||

1922 |
Parana river crossing. Levels by simult. z.d. |
|||||

1922 |
-27. Athanassiadis (Gk) suggested to link Crete with N Africa by flare |
|||||

triangulation with balloons |
||||||

1923 |
Vening Meinesz working on isostasy |
|||||

1923 |
Plane parallel plate for Vaisala interference comparator. |
|||||

1923 |
Design of Wild T2 complete |
|||||

1923 |
Vening Meinesz gravity obs in submarine |
|||||

1924 |
Glass circles & optical micrometer designed by Wild, built by Zeiss. |
|||||

1924 |
Zeiss-Bosshardt double-image tacheometer. |
|||||

1924 |
Barometric lapse rate formula. |
|||||

1924 |
Acceptance of Hayford ellipsoid as Int. Ellipsoid of IUGG |
|||||

1924 |
Foundation of Baltic GeodeticCommission by Bonsdorff |
|||||

1924 |
-38. Heiskanen observed over 2000 gravity stations. |
|||||

1924 |
-38. Airy-Heiskanen isostatic system |
|||||

1925 |
Launch of Wild T3 |
|||||

1925 |
Defant- tidal theory |
|||||

1926 |
Research into vertical refraction by Geiger and Kukkamaki |
|||||

1926 |
Heiskanen ellipsoid |
|||||

1926 |
Astro levelling by Aguilar in Argentina. |
|||||

1926 |
CTS 1″ theodolite |
|||||

1927 |
Sun compass by Bumstead for polar flights. |
|||||

1927 |
Coast to coast precise levelling in USA |
|||||

1927 |
Somigliani derived major axis of geoid from gravity measures alone |
|||||

1927 |
Differential analyser for use in digital computer By Bush, USA |
|||||

1927 |
Experiments with echosounders by Behm (G) |
|||||

1928 |
Triangulation of Alai-Pamir by Germans under Finsterwalder |
|||||

1928 |
IAG first published International Bibliography. |
|||||

1928 |
Static quartz gravimeter by Noergaard |
|||||

1928 |
Empirical gravity formula by Heiskanen |
|||||

1929 |
Deflection of dams by precise geodetic methods. Lang, Switzerland |
|||||

1929 |
Vening-Meinesz three pendulum gravimeter for use at sea |
|||||

1930 |
Somigliani and Cassini added theoretical term to to Heiskanen 1928 formula |
|||||

1930 |
Holweck-Lejay astatic pendulum |
|||||

1930 |
Lejay, S.J. director of Observatory Zi-Ka-Wei near Shanghai |
|||||

1930 |
Gravimeters specifically for oil exploration. Truman, USA |
|||||

1930 |
45º prismatic astrolabe by Baker. |
|||||

1930 |
Pendulum astrolabe by Willis. |
|||||

1930 |
Error analysis by Ljutz. |
|||||

1930 |
Spring balance principle gravimeter |
|||||

1930 |
-31. Wegener Greenland crossing. Used trig. levelling. |
|||||

1931 |
Haalck gravimeter on barometric principle |
|||||

1931 |
Heiskanen tables of isostatic reductions |
|||||

1931 |
Hildebrand special optical plummet for shipbuilding. |
|||||

1931 |
Gas pressure gravimeter |
|||||

1931 |
-41. Vening-Meinesz modified Airy regional floating theory. |
|||||

1931 |
Heiskanen definition of spheroidal earth. See p 83 |
|||||

and also equilibrium earth. |
||||||

1932 |
Photo.registration of horz. circle reading on theodolites. Berroth |
|||||

1932 |
Bifilar gravimeter by Tomaschek |
|||||

1933 |
Berroth established procedures for flare triangulation |
|||||

1934 |
Triangulation of Nanga-Parbat |
|||||

1934 |
Hirvonen used Stokes formula to recompute geoid. |
|||||

1934 |
-35. Heye, Cooke absolute gravity in washington. |
|||||

1935 |
N African parallel arc Nemours – Carthago and W to Casablanca. |
|||||

1935 |
Echo sounder improved by Wood and others. |
|||||

1935 |
Germany instructed Surveyors to switch to centesimal circle graduations |
|||||

1935 |
Australian SArmy Svy Corp bought first metric tapes |
|||||

1935 |
-55. Secoind Geodetic levelling of Finland by Kukkamaki et al. |
|||||

1936 |
Int.Lat. Service moved to Naples from Kimura |
|||||

1936 |
Hilger Watts 1″ microptic theodolite |
|||||

1936 |
Three way optical plumb by Zeiss |
|||||

1936 |
Norlund pioneered hydrostatic precise levelling |
|||||

1936 |
-38. J S Clark NPL absolute gravity |
|||||

1938 |
Charter for OS recommended metric grid. |
|||||

1938 |
Plane parallel plate for precise level by Wild(Zeiss). |
|||||

1938 |
Calibration od invar base wires by Vaisala interference comparator |
|||||

1938 |
Cowle, USA had idea of adjustment by electrical analogue |
|||||

1939 |
Graf, Berlin. static gravimeter |
|||||

1939 |
Test of Berroth flare triangulation inGermany |
|||||

1939 |
Automatic level compensator by Meissner |
|||||

1941 |
Hinterkeuser error theory of flare triangulation |
|||||

1941 |
Gulf underwater gravimeter |
|||||

1942 |
Roelofs solar prism |
|||||

1942 |
Krasovsky ellipsoid |
|||||

1943 |
ICAN Standard Atmosphere for barometric levelling. |
|||||

1944 |
HARVARD MARK 1 by Aiken. Electronic computer with punch tape. |
|||||

1944 |
Underwater photogrammetry began in USA |
|||||

1945 |
Multiplex radar controlled air photography. |
|||||

1945 |
ENIAC by Mauchly et al. USA. |
|||||

1945 |
Norlund levelled 21 km across Baltic Sea using lead pipe. |
|||||

1945 |
Split of Carl Zeiss Jena to give Carl-Zeiss Obserkochen & VEB Carl Zeiss |
|||||

1945 |
-46. Flare triangulation by British, US and Norway |
|||||

1946 |
-51. Rice and van Steenwijk studies on deflection of plumbline |
|||||

Absolute gravity work by Bullard, Ivanov, Browne, Morelli, Jeffreys, Woollard |
||||||

1946 |
Russian tri-axial ellipsoid. See p 84 |
|||||

1946 |
Dutch discovered radio astro with ex-war radar. |
|||||

1946 |
Vaisala stellar triangulation |
|||||

1947 |
Speert, USGS adjustment by electrical analogue. |
|||||

1947 |
Electric eye for telescopes by Gigas |
|||||

1947 |
-48. Fully automatic elevation recorders |
|||||

1947 |
-48. Global triangulation initiated by Finns. Hirvonen in Brazil and |
|||||

Kukkamaki in W Africa |
||||||

1948 |
Mears, Whitford USA telescope for occultation obs. |
|||||

1948 |
Jungwirth modified submarine gyro compass to fit theodolite |
|||||

1948 |
Invention of transistor by Bell Laboratories USA |
|||||

1949 |
-65. Level testers of high precision. See p 85 |
|||||

1950 |
Reflecting telescope by Kern for 1st order triangulation |
|||||

1950 |
Gyroscopes in aerial cameras. (Italy) |
|||||

1950 |
Gyroscopes in theodolites by Fennel. |
|||||

1950 |
Moves by Hotine, Marussi, Levallois, Dufour to replace geoid by quasi geoid |
|||||

Molodensky and Hirvonen defined by space coords instead of siurface coords. |
||||||

1950 |
Hough & Whitten adjusted SW European & N African trig. blocks |
|||||

1950 |
Van Heel,Moonen & Richardus used interference patterns in alignment svy. |
|||||

1950 |
Honkasalo inver-mercury thermometer for baselines |
|||||

1951 |
Automatic level Ni2 by Zeiss Oberkochen |
|||||

1951 |
Fourth connection UK – France by triangulation. |
|||||

1951 |
-59. Third geodetic levelling of Great britain |
|||||

1952 |
Askania Askania micro-barometer for diff. of height. |
|||||

1952 |
Random disturbances of earth rotation. Brouwer, USA. |
|||||

1953 |
VEB Carl Zeiss 1″ theodolite 010 |
|||||

1953 |
Wankie and Sabi bases (S Rhod) by Bradford. Invar resistance thermometer. |
|||||

1954 |
Ellenberger reported on elasticity of earth. |
|||||

1954 |
Invention of geodimeter ?? |
|||||

1955 |
Diff. between dynamic and orthometric hts discussed in Rome |
|||||

1956 |
Advent of satellites |
|||||

1956 |
Irene Fisher geoid chart of USA |
|||||

1956 |
Hough ellipsoid of Western hemisphere |
|||||

1956 |
Obs of satellites by interferometer, Doppler effect and radar. |
|||||

1957 |
Sea surface gravimeter by Graf. |
|||||

1957 |
Fisher- Chovitz figure of earth. See p 88 |
|||||

1957 |
Jerie analogue computer |
|||||

1957 |
-58. International Geophysical Year |
|||||

1958 |
Baker-Nunn camera for satellite obs. |
|||||

1958 |
Several independent adjustments of 68 European level loops. See pp 88,89 |
|||||

1958 |
Tellurometer traverses replace triangulation in Australia |
|||||

1959 |
Development of super wide angle camera by Wild |
|||||

1959 |
First spatial photograph of moon by Lunik III |
|||||

1959 |
Prismastrolabium by Danjou. |
|||||

1960 |
Fennel, Kassel gyrotheodolite with suspended gyroscope. |
|||||

1960 |
Int. agreement of metre as 1 650 763.73 wavelengths krypton 86 in vacuo |
|||||

1960 |
Yard – metre relation as 0.9144 m |
|||||

1960 |
De Graaff Hunter theory on shape of earth suirface |
|||||

1960 |
Harrison USA gravity measurement in aeroplane |
|||||

1960 |
Astro-geodetic World Datum for geoid. |
|||||

Also agreement on standards of length. See p 89 |
||||||

1960 |
Mobile cameras for satellite geodesy |
|||||

1961 |
Irene Fischer comprehensive study of shape of geoid. |
|||||

1961 |
Cooperation between NASA and USCGS in geodetic satellite programme |
|||||

1963 |
Fifth connection England – France by triangulation & trilateration |
|||||

1963 |
Hydrostatic levelling using frozen lake Ijsselmeer |
|||||

1964 |
Automatic level Zeiss Ni4 by Drodofsky. Spirit bubble as pendulum |
|||||

1965 |
Light weight gyrotheodolites by Wild, MOM etc |
|||||

1966 |
VEB Carl Zeiss astro-geodetic theo 0.2″ |
|||||

1967 |
Daylight signalling lamp with quartziodine globes. Australia |
|||||

1967 |
Geodolite by Spectra Physics, USA |